|Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of AO and its meanings of Angola.
In January 2010, Parliament passed a constitutional
amendment. One of the most important changes was that the
president should no longer be elected by direct election but
by parliament. The president is automatically the leader of
the largest party. At the same time, the new constitution
stated that the president can only sit for 2 periods. That
should limit Dos Santo's tenure to another 2 * 5 years.
That same month, Togo's football national team was
attacked by armed men in the Cabinda enclave and 2 were
killed. Various warring factions of the separatist group
FLEC subsequently took charge of the attack. Authorities
subsequently arrested the 14 Angolans charged with the
attack. Despite several convictions, all were released again
in December 2010.
In March 2010, 7 policemen were sentenced to 24 years in
prison for the killing of 8 youths in the Largo da Frescura
district of Luanda in July 2008. Still, the police continued
to punish violations of even basic human rights.
Although they signed an agreement with the Democratic
Republic of Congo in September 2009 for the two countries to
suspend the expulsion of each other's nationals, the
expulsions continued through 2010. Alone during the period
September - December 2010, the UN Office for Human Rights,
OCHA, reported that Angola had expelled 12,000 to DR Congo.
The drones of the "Arab Spring" reached Angola in the
spring of 2011 with the conduct of several smaller
demonstrations against Dos Santos and his government. Santos
responded again by tightening internet access and calling on
established media to conduct "self-censorship". Since 2000,
Internet control has increased dramatically in both the
developed capitalist world and the Third World. The smaller
demonstrations against the regime continued through 2012,
and this was answered again by sentencing protesters 45-90
days in prison for " civil disobedience ".
The economic crisis hit Angola's native colonial lord
Portugal in 2010-11 hard, leading to a drastic increase in
emigration from Portugal to Angola. In 2010, 23,787 visas
were issued by Angola to traveling Portuguese. In 2011,
there were 3,000 Portuguese companies in Angola.
At the August 2012 parliamentary elections, MPLA had to
note a decline of 9.7% to 71.8% of the vote. However, it
still yielded 175 out of Parliament's 220 seats. UNITA rose
8.3% to 18.7% and gained 32 seats - a doubling compared to
the previous elections. The new party CASA-CE that had been
called off by UNITA was elected with 8 seats. The turnout
was 62.8%. It was the first election after the
constitutional amendment in 2010, and not surprisingly,
Parliament elected dos Santos as president. He will only be
eligible for re-election once more (in 2017). The African
Union noted that the election had been "free, fair,
transparent and credible". However, the Union noted that the
opposition had not had equal access to the media. UNITA
announced that it would appeal the election result as it did
not match the party counts at the polling stations. CASA-CE
chose a similar strategy.
Torture and mistreatment of prisoners continues to be
widespread. On October 3, 2012, Manuel “Laranjinha”
Francisco was arrested by police. Witnesses could later
report that he was beaten at the police station. The
following day, police told him he had been transferred to
another police station. However, that was not the case. He
was found in the morgue at one of Luanda's hospitals.
Authorities would not comment and subsequently refused to
launch an investigation into the incident.
There are also significant restrictions on freedom of
expression. In March 2012, 15 police officers from the
National Directorate of Criminal Investigation (DNIC)
conducted a raid on the Folha-8 newspaper as part
of an investigation into the newspaper's publication of a
satirical photo montage with the president, the vice
president and several others. Twenty of the newspaper's
computers were confiscated and in June DNIC called 7 of the
newspaper's journalists for questioning. Several journalists
were arrested in 2013 and charged with defamation.