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Armenia Politics

Government and Politics of Armenia

In the 5th and 6th centuries Armenia was divided between Byzans and Persia. The Persians tried to eliminate Christianity from the eastern parts of Armenia, where the Christians stood strong, leading to a popular uprising. Prince Vartán Mamikonian, commander of the Armenian army, assumed leadership of the rebellion. In the year 451, there was a battle in the Avaraev Valley between the Armenian army of 60,000 men, led by Vartán, and the Persian army, the Armenians being significantly superior. The Armenians were defeated and Prince Vartán killed, but the Persians also suffered significant losses. After the battle, the Persians gave up the opportunity to impose their religion on the Armenians, while all the fallen were canonized by the Armenian Church. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of AM and its meanings of Armenia.

Persia was invaded by the Arabs in the 7th century, and the new Islamic leaders annexed Armenia as well. The people struggled against until the end of the 9th century when Prince Ashot Bagratuni was proclaimed king and thus independent leader of Armenia. This period is described in the epic short story "David of Sasún".

The welfare period under King Bagratidas became quite short. At the end of the 11th century, the country began to falter under the pressure of the Byzantines and the Selyucids who had come to Transcaucasia from Central Asia. Many Armenian princes surrendered their land to the Byzantine emperor, and in return received land in Cilicia. This - as well as the fear of the Turks - led to large emigrations from many Armenian areas.

At the end of the 11th century, the Rubénidas dynasty in Cilicia founded a new Armenian state that survived for the next 300 years. Cilicia had close links with the Western European nations. The Armenian forces intervened in the Crusades, and through marriage, the Rubénidas were introduced to European leaders. In 1375, Cilitic Armenia was conquered by the Egyptian Mamluks, who maintained the literature, culture and scientific achievements, while the "original" Armenia had been exterminated after invasions and wars.

The Turkish Ottomans who replaced the Selyucids in the late 13th century initiated the conquest of Asia Minor. Constantinople was conquered in 1453 and the Turks continued their march to the east, invading Persia. The countless wars between Turkey and Persia used Armenia as a battleground until the 17th century country was divided between the two Islamic empires. At this time, the church not only performed many worldly tasks, but also sought to draw the attention of the Christian Europeans to the drama that the Armenians who saw themselves forced to flee and settle far from their homeland; several of these colonies still exist.

After an expedition in 1722, which brought the Russian troops all the way to Transcaucasia, where they occupied the city of Bakú, as well as additional territories belonging to the Persians, the Armenian princes of Nagorny Karabakh and some neighboring regions initiated an insurrection to unite them with the Russians. The uprising was led by Armenian national hero David Bek. However, the Russian czar, Peter the Great, who had promised to assist the Armenians, died, and Russia signed a peace treaty with Persia. The Second Russian War against Persia began in 1804 and ended in 1813 with the Peace Treaty of Gulistan, by virtue of which Karakakh and a few other historical areas of Armenia were incorporated into the Russian Empire.

 

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