Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of GA and its meanings of Georgia.
The people of the Caucasus are considered to be the
creators of metallurgy. In the 2nd millennium BCE they
entered the Bronze Age, and it is believed during this
period that the ancestors of the present Georgians formed
their first tribes. In Homer's poems and in Greek
traditional stories, the kingdom of Colquida is said to have
been formed in the 6th century BCE Two centuries later, the
legendary chief Farnavaz created the kingdom of Iberia in
the eastern part of present-day Georgia. These two kingdoms
were the first Georgian states - a result of the association
between the area's ancient agricultural tribes.
Colquida and Iberia were first subjugated to Greece and
since Rome during Pompeius' campaigns in the 1st century BCE
In 337, King Mirian of Iberia introduced Christianity as
official religion. Like the Armenian church, the Georgian
church in 506 broke with Rome to form a new church,
headquartered in Tiflis (today Tbilisi).
From being a city of secondary importance, Tiflis became
the capital of First Iberia and then Georgia after the
assembly process in 8-9. century. In the 6-10. century both
kingdoms were subject to respectively. the Sasanids in Iran,
Byzan and the Arab Caliphate, all fighting for the area.
Feudal Georgia flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries
under the builder David (1089-1125) and Queen Tamara
In the 13th and 14th centuries, Georgia was invaded by
the Tartars and Timur Lenk (Tamerlán). In the 15th century,
the kingdom was divided into small principals and was in it
16-18. century goals for respectively. Turkish and Iranian
expansion. There was a major revolt against the Turks and
Iranians: in 1625 under the leadership of Gueorgui Saakadze
and in 1629. In the second half of the 18th century, the
area gradually came within the Russian sphere of influence.
With the Treaty of Gueorguievsk (1783), Russia
established its protectorate in Eastern Georgia, which in
1801 was incorporated into the Russian Empire. In the second
half of the 19th century the same thing happened to western
Georgia - Tiflis and Kutaisi. The Georgian provinces were
incorporated into Transcaucasia, ruled by a deputy king
appointed by the Czar.
The Russian annexation had a number of negative
consequences for the Georgian population. The people's own
language was eliminated from the administrative documents,
banned in literature and in schools, to be replaced with
Russian. The National Georgian Church was curtailed, its
patriarchs deported and replaced with Russian Orthodox
bishops. At the same time, the Czarist government promoted
the emigration of Russians to all the Georgian cities. This
helps explain the unusual strength of the revolutionary
movement in Georgia. This applies to both the nationalist,
populist and social democratic Marxist currents. It was in
the latter that Iosif Dzhugashvili - better known by the
pseudonym Stalin- began his political career. After numerous
revolts in the latter half of the 19th century, Georgians
played a central role in the revolution that shook the
empire in 1905.
Tbilisi, Georgia's Capital, $ 1.12 Million residents (2014). The city extends
approximately 30 km on both sides of the Kura River (Mtkvari) and is a hub of the
Caucasian railway and road system. It is also an important industrial city with
a wide range of heavy, light and chemical industries. As a Georgian cultural
center, the city houses the Academy of Sciences, several universities, theaters,
museums and a botanical garden. In a pantheon for Georgian celebrities is also
the tomb of the Russian poet Griboyedov.
The old town on the right side of the river, with its narrow streets and the
houses' traditional, beautifully carved, closed wooden balconies, has retained
medieval features, although most houses are from the 1800's. On a hilltop above
the old town lies the ruins of the 300-t Narikala fortress. High on the left is
the Church of the Metekhi from the 1280's, and in the old town is the Cathedral
of Zion from 500-600-t. The other districts with many late-classist buildings
are characterized by the longstanding Russian/Soviet influence. The city got a
subway in 1966 and also has a couple of cogwheels.
An on-site fortress is known from 300-t. The city is thought to have been
founded by King Vakhtang Gorgasali in 458, and it soon became the capital of the
Kartli kingdom. The city gained its heyday as a Georgian capital after the
expulsion of the Arabs in 1122, and until the ravages of Timur Lenk in the late
1300's. it was one of the area's richest and most beautiful cities. In 1801,
Tbilisi was incorporated into Russia, but the city remained an administrative
center; in 1921 it became the capital of the Soviet Republic of Georgia.