The election was finally held in 1994, and here João
Bernardo Vieira, Kumba Iala of the Social Renewal Party,
defeated. After receiving 46% of the votes in the first
round of elections in July - against 22% for Iala - Vieira
received 52% of the votes in the second round and was thus
elected. During the election campaign, Iala accused him of
"tribalism" and racism. In the parliamentary elections,
Vieira's PAIGC received 64 of the 100 seats. Iala believed
that the ruling party had "bought" votes, and he therefore
refused to join the national unity government.
Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of PU and its meanings of Guinea-Bissau.
In January 1995, the IMF granted a new $ 14 million loan
to implement economic reforms. In June, Senegalese President
Abdou Diouf visited the country, prompting closer contacts
with Dakar. After a longer relatively hostile period, the
two countries now agreed to jointly extract the two
countries' energy and mineral resources. In August, Iala
Vieira's approach to France criticized recent price
increases for basic products - such as rice - as well as the
government's human rights violations.
In late 1995, Guinea-Bissau ratified a border agreement
with Senegal signed in 1993. The border at sea was reshaped
and it was decided that joint extraction should take place
in an area believed to be rich in oil.
In August 1996, the government agreed to accept 44
illegal African emigrants expelled by Spain. The
Guinea-Bissau Human Rights League criticized the government
for accepting the request from Spain in return for money. In
the United Nations Security Council, Guinea-Bissau supported
a flight blockade against Sudan as it refused to expel 3
people suspected of participating in an assassination
attempt against Egyptian President Hosni Moubarak.
Yet in 1998, Bissau allowed the Senegalese independence
movement, the Movement of Casamance's Democratic Forces (MFDC)
to operate in the country. Yet, in January 98, Bissau's
military carried out an attack on a Casamance refugee camp
near the Senegal border. This fueled rumors of renewed
rapprochement between the two countries.
In November, the rebels and the government signed a peace
agreement in Abuja, Nigeria. Nevertheless, in January 1999,
fighting resumed in the capital Bissau between the rebel
general Ansumana Mané and troops from the Vieira government.
Mané had been ousted after accusations against him for
arming Senegalese rebels. After 4 days of very bloody
fighting that sent almost the entire capital of the capital
to flight, a ceasefire was concluded.
On May 4, the United Nations asked donor countries that
previously assisted Guinea-Bissau to return after eight
months of civil war. Yet, three days later, Mané seized arms
again and overthrew Vieira, seeking political asylum in
Portugal. The military blamed Vieira for corruption and
treason. From France, the coup was condemned and Mané
accused of breaking the agreements between Abuja and Lomé,
which had been concluded three months before.
In August, the FAO included Guinea-Bissau on the list of
the 16 poorest African countries, while noting that the
country lacked food and faced a crisis situation.
Five months after the coup, an open well of 18 corpses
was found in the village of Portogole - among them the
corpse of Vice President Correia. Meanwhile, the military
regime had presented evidence to Portugal for Vieira's
"crimes" - in an attempt to get him extradited. On November
17, 99, just two weeks before the general election, General
Mané stated that "if the president-elect does not fulfill
his promises, he will be immediately dismissed." However,
supporters of the general confirmed at the same time that
the military junta would be dissolved once the new president
was in office.