The woman's position is confusing to understand for
Europeans. Although the country has had a female prime
minister, and although some prime ministers in the states
have been women, the Indian woman is a very withdrawn being
who can only wait for a better fate by being born as a man
in the next life. But class and caste are more important
than gender in any context. A Brahminical woman stands
socially above a man in the fold, just as a rich woman
socially faces a poor man on the social ladder. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of IN and its meanings of India.
Women have as their primary task to give birth to the
sons of the family. Less is required of a daughter than of a
son. Young girls are therefore quite free and often avoid
the demands of upbringing and education that fathers impose
on their sons. But at marriage there is a sudden ending to
the good days of the girls. It is the marriage a girl is
brought up to. First of all, she must be a good
daughter-in-law, because she will have far more to do with
her mother-in-law than with her husband. She spends her day
in the women's section of the house, and only meets her
husband in completely private moments.
When a girl marries, she leaves the family forever and
travels to a foreign mother-in-law and a foreign husband
with whom she must spend life. As a newlywed wife, the girl
will have the lowest status in her new family. She can
easily be blamed for everything that goes wrong. The
relationship between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law is
always bad and no one expects it to be good. Families are
often divided because women cannot work together. According
to tradition, the husband is not allowed to publicly show
interest in his wife. The situation does not change until
she becomes pregnant. Then the mother-in-law relaxes and can
show both tenderness and understanding. The man becomes
proud and the family becomes happy.
With a child in wait, the woman has become a full-fledged
human being. If she gives the family a son, everything is
won, but a daughter is not bad either. She must remain in
the innermost rooms of the house, but she is no longer the
one who is always stepped on. If she doesn't have children,
it's a curse. The Indian Widow Burning was a voluntary cause
for childless women who would follow their husbands to
better fields, rather than living the unbridled fate of the
earth as a childless widow.
Three thousand years BCE, the inhabitants of the Indus
River - in present-day Pakistan - had already built about a
hundred cities. In the largest - i.e. Harappa and Mohenjo
Daro - built the huge temples, developed a writing language
that has not yet been interpreted and carved perfectly
cylindrical marks. The community was based on irrigation
farming. The economy flourished, providing a basis for
extensive trade in the Indian Ocean and the Himalayas. The
Indus River was the main transport route for this trade.
There is not much else we know about this culture, political
organization or historical development. After 500 years of
existence, the area was ravaged by invading forces that
killed the population and destroyed its civilization.
the 16th century BCE, waves of Indo-Europeans arrived from
Afghanistan, gradually conquering the subcontinent. They
were equipped with weapons of iron, protected by armor and
with tanks. They used this power to subdue locals and
establish a number of principals. The civilization they
developed, which was later renamed Veda, had its
basis in a rigid caste system in which invaders constituted
the upper class. Ariana or ayriana meant
nobleman, and was used to identify Indo-Europeans together.
From this comes the later word arias.
The Iranian and Greek invasions in the 6-4. century BCE
did not affect India's most powerful state, Magadha, located
in the Ganges Valley. During Ashoka's (274 - 232 BCE) reign,
this kingdom was extended to the entire subcontinent -
except the southernmost part. From this point on, one can
speak of an Indian civilization: Ashoka and his descendants
conducted a homogenization of the culture and incorporated
the teachings of Gautama Siddhartha (Buddha, 563-483 BCE).
In it 1-3. century, this kingdom began to crack in pressure
from the new states of Kusana and Ksatrapa in the northwest.
However, during the Gupta dynasty (3-6th century) in
Magadha, a new rally began, which became one of the most
brilliant in Indian culture. The 8th century Islamic
expansion was not able to coerce India. It did not happen
until 4 centuries later. Waves of Islamic peoples from
Central Asia eventually invaded the subcontinent. This
period culminated with the invasion of the Tartars under the
leadership of Timur. In 1505-25, one of his descendants,
Babur, founded the empire known as the Storm Mogul empire
with the capital of Delhi.