Kyrgyzstan a unified state, parliamentary-democratic
republic under the Constitution of 2010.
On June 27, 2010, a new constitution was passed by
referendum. According to the country's new constitution,
Kyrgyzstan is a parliamentary republic, giving parliament
and prime minister greater authority than the presidential
office. This is unique in the Central Asian context, where
the other republics are characterized by an extremely strong
presidential power. The 2010 Constitution replaced a 2007
constitution, which in turn replaced a previous 1993
Legislative power has been added to a national assembly,
Zhogorku Kenesh (Supreme Council), with 90 members,
who are elected in the general election for five years. The
first real elections to the National Assembly in 2005 were
marked by turmoil and widespread electoral fraud, which led
to the regime change and the fall of President Askar Akajev.
The formal basis for the regime change was that the Supreme
Court refused to approve the new National Assembly and
instead extended the mandate of the previous one, which
consisted of two chambers.
The last parliamentary elections were held on October 4,
2015. The following parties were among those with the
highest support: the Social Democratic Party (27.56
percent), Ata-Zjurt (20.26 percent), Kyrgyzstan (13.07
percent), Onuguu Progress (9.39 percent), Bir-Bol (8.59
percent) and Ata-Meken (7.08 percent).
Administratively, the country of Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven
provinces (oblast or duban) as well as the
capital Bishkek and the country's next largest city, Osj.
The provinces are governed by administrators appointed by
the president. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of KG and its meanings of Kyrgyzstan.
The judiciary includes local courts and three higher
courts - the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the
Supreme Economic Court. According to the new constitution,
the courts must be independent. The judges of the supreme
courts are appointed by the National Assembly on a proposal
from the President.
Kyrgyzstan's foreign policy
Kyrgyzstan depends on its location and poverty on good
relations with Russia and neighboring countries. President
Akajev (1990-2005) tried in every way to integrate
Kyrgyzstan into international and especially Western
political structures. As part of the efforts to develop
relations with the West, in order to become less dependent
on Russia, Akajev visited Norway and other Nordic countries
Officially, the country has strived to become a
"European" country, while "the little Asian tigers" have
been seen as possible role models and trading partners. By
contrast, President of the period 2011–2017, Almazbek
Atambayev, presented himself as a pro-Russian politician who
wanted to strengthen relations with Russia and Turkey.
The Kyrgyz are closely related to the Kazakhs, and the
relations with Kazakhstan are good. On the other hand, there
is great skepticism towards Uzbekistan, which is suspected
of regional hegemony aspirations. Kyrgyz authorities are
concerned that the civil war in neighboring Tajikistan may
spread to their territory and contribute a smaller
contingent to a joint peacekeeping force of the USSR on the
Tajik- Afghan border.
Kyrgyzstan's decision to introduce its own currency in
1993 created irritation in neighboring countries and
resulted in a temporary economic blockade from Uzbekistan.
When Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan established a "common
economic space" in January 1994, Kyrgyzstan was still
allowed to participate. Kyrgyzstan also participates in
several other regional cooperation projects in Central Asia
and with other countries of the former Soviet Union. In
April 1996, Kyrgyzstan embarked on a new integration project
with Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus.
The terrorist attack in the United States on September
11, 2001, strengthened the regime's position above the
outside world. Kyrgyzstan joined the "war on terror" with
new security ties with the United States. During the war in
Afghanistan, the United States made extensive use of the
Manas airbase outside Bishkek. In 2003, Russia was able to
establish another air base in the metropolitan area, just 30
kilometers from the US. Manas was also the operating base
for six Norwegian F-16 fighters who in 2002–2003 decamped
the airspace over Afghanistan.
An international counterterrorism center was established
in Bishkek in 2002. The reason for this was the fear of
militant Islamists in the region. Armed Islamists have
repeatedly invaded Kyrgyzstan since the 1990s.
In the Fergana Valley, a very densely populated area
where various groups of people compete for land and water,
there are unresolved border disputes between Kyrgyzstan and
Uzbekistan. The countries also contend with the river water
flowing from the Kyrgyz mountains down to the Uzbek plain.
As a result, Uzbekistan has occasionally suspended its gas
supplies to Kyrgyzstan.
Kyrgyzstan also borders the politically troubled Xinjiang
province in China. Islamist separatists from the Uighur
people sometimes hide in Kyrgyz territory, and there have
been clashes along the border. Relations with China were
tense for a long time, but improved after the countries
agreed in 2004 to resolve old border disputes by re-
demarcating its 1,100-kilometer border. Fears of Islamic
separatist movements have prompted Kyrgyzstan, along with
Russia, China and other neighboring countries, to conclude a
cooperation agreement against terror within the framework of
the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
It is public duty for men of 18 years of age, with
initial service of 18 months. The country has been
participating in NATO's Partnership for Peace program since
1994. The total force numbers for Kyrgyzstan's armed forces
are 10,900 active personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, there
are 9500 semi-military, of which 5,000 border guards, 3500
internal security forces, and 1,000 in the National Guard.
Russia has military forces in the country, with about 500
personnel, 13 attack aircraft, and two helicopters.
The army's strength is 8500 active personnel. Materials
include 150 tanks of a T-72, 30 reconnaissance vehicles, 320
armored vehicles, 55 armored personnel carriers, and 42
self-propelled artillery (which 24 self-sustaining air
defense artillery). In addition, the army heavy artillery,
anti-aircraft missiles short range and short range air
The Air Force has a personnel force of 2400 active
personnel. Materials include six light transport aircraft,
four L-39 Albatros training aircraft that can also be used
as light attack aircraft, and ten helicopters (including two
Mi-24 combat helicopters). In addition, the Air Force has
medium range air defense missiles.
In 2018, Kyrgyzstan participated in UN operations in
Sudan with an observer (UNAMID), and in South Sudan (UNMISS)
with an observer.