Lebanon is, according to the constitution, a unified
state, parliamentary - democratic republic. The head of
state, the president, is elected in the general election for
six years and cannot be re-elected. The constitution of 1926
has been changed several times, including a particularly
important change at the end of the civil war in 1990, was
the Taif Agreement of 1989.
Before 1990, the president was the country's real leader.
Under the Taif agreement, the president has a more
ceremonial function, and the supreme executive power is
added to the prime minister and the government. The
government is appointed by the president, but after
consultation with the president of the National Assembly;
the government is also responsible to the assembly. The
Assembly has legislative authority and is elected in the
general election for four years. It has 128 members.
Separation of powers
Lebanon's politics are characterized by the country's
religious divide between Christians, especially Maronites,
and Muslims and by contradictions based on them. In 1943, a
national pact was signed which carried out a distribution of
power among the confessional groups in the country. As the
numerical relationship between Christians and Muslims
shifted in Muslim favor, the National Pact's provisions were
diluted, which led to growing unrest and was one of the
causes of the Lebanese civil war of 1975-1990. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of LE and its meanings of Lebanon.
The Taif Agreement revised the National Pact; here it was
agreed that the seats in the National Assembly and the
government should be shared equally between Christians and
Muslims, that the President should be a Maronite and the
Prime Minister of Sunni Muslim; agreement also provides for
the chairman and vice chairman of the meeting shall be Shia
Muslim and Druse, the defense minister to be Greek Orthodox
and the chief of defense must be Maronite. However, the
parties do not quite match the religious divisions, and this
helps to create complicated lines of conflict. The country
is also characterized by various military factions
(Hezbollah) and foreign forces (Syria, Israel) has been in
control of parts of the country.
Administratively, the country is divided into six
governorates, governed by state prefects.
The legal system is based on French law. However, the
various religious groups also have their own civil courts.
In the secular system, 56 single-dish dishes constitute the
lowest level. There are eleven appellate courts and four
courts of appeal, with the first of the courts of appeal as
the country's supreme court. There is also a Council of
State which deals with administrative law cases and a
judicial court that handles matters relating to state
The total force figures for Lebanon's armed forces are
60,000 active personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, some
20,000 semi-military security forces are arriving. Hezbollah
has suffered several defeats in recent years, but still has
significant strength in Lebanon. The UN has peacekeeping
forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL and UNTSO), which together
comprise about 10,000 observers and personnel.
The army has a workforce of 56,600 active personnel.
Materials include 334 tanks (92 M48, 10 M60, 185 T-54, and
47 T-55), 55 light vehicles, 48 storm tanks and 1378 armored
personnel vehicles, 12 self-propelled M109 artillery, 15
armored fighters, and eight medium- duty drones. In
addition, the army heavy artillery, anti-aircraft missiles
short range and short range air defense artillery.
The Air Force has a workforce of 1,600 active personnel.
Materials include three reconnaissance aircraft, nine
training aircraft, of which six Super Tucano can also be
used as light attack aircraft, and 47 helicopters.
The Navy has a staff of 1,800 active personnel, 13 patrol
vessels, and two landing craft.