Following the 1992 constitution, Mali is a presidential,
unified state republic. The president is elected in the
general election for five years and can be re-elected once.
He appoints the prime minister, who in turn appoints the
rest of the government. Legislative power has been added to
a national assembly of 147 members, elected in the general
election for five years.
Mali is divided into ten administrative regions. In
addition, the capital Bamako is a separate district. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of ML and its meanings of Mali.
The judiciary comprises a Supreme Court, a Court of
Appeal, two first instance courts and separate labor courts.
The legislation is based on French examples.
Other factors that promoted the uprising in the north of
the country were the government's redistribution of the
north in favor of the south as well as the corruption. In
May and June, the IMF and the World Bank held a loan of DKK
70 million. US $ back to Mali because the government could
not provide sensible explanations for the purchase of a
presidential aircraft purchased outside the state budget, as
well as scams by military means. A subsequent audit revealed
fraud of $ 56 million. US $ within the country's military
In 2012-13, human rights organizations reported serious
human rights violations on both sides in the form of summary
executions, civilian abuse in the form of abuse and murder,
use of child soldiers, and looting. 400,000 were then on the
Django Sissoko resigned as Prime Minister in September
2013 and was replaced by Oumar Tatam Ly.
Oumar Tatam Ly resigned as Prime Minister in April 2014
and was replaced by Moussa Mara.
On the same day that Moussa Mara was supposed to have
visited the city of Kidal in northern Mali, fierce fighting
broke out in the city of Kidal between government soldiers
and rebels. After three days of fighting, a ceasefire was
concluded between the parties. Eight civilians were then
executed and some 30 officials taken hostage. Subsequently,
the two sides exchanged prisoners of war.
Moussa Mara resigned as Prime Minister in January 2015
and was replaced by Modibo Keita.
The fighting continued in the north. In mid-January 2015,
AQIM attacked a MINUSMA camp. A few days before, they had
attacked a military column in Nampala, killing 11 government
Also in January, MINUSMA soldiers fired a civilian
demonstration outside the MINUSMA base in Gao, killing 3 and
wounding 4. The demonstration had been violent and was a
protest against the UN's plan to create a buffer zone in the
northern city of Tabankort. In March, the victims' families
reported MINUSMA for murder. A UN investigation placed the
responsibility for the murders of MINUSMA's officers and
stated that they had used unauthorized and deadly violence.
The full report from the investigation remained secret.
Tensions in the country diminished when the government
and the Azawad Movement (CMA) in June 2015 concluded a peace
agreement. As part of the agreement, a political
decentralization was to be carried out in the country and an
international commission of inquiry was set up to
investigate the crimes and human rights violations during
the war of previous years. The agreement also meant that no
amnesty should be given to persons suspected or convicted of
war crimes. As part of the agreement, the arrest warrant
against 14 senior CMA members was revoked and other CMA
members subsequently released from prisons in Bamako. In the
same month, the MNUSMA mandate was extended by the UN by 1
year. In August, former minister and member of the political
opposition, Ousmane Oumarou Sidibé was made chairman of the
National Truth and Reconciliation Commission.