State and politics
Monaco is a hereditary, constitutional principle, since
2002 also a female throne. The executive is exercised by the
prince. The government, which consists of a prime minister
and ministers, is responsible to the prince. The legislative
power is exercised by the prince and the National Council,
which has 24 members, elected for five years in general
elections. Furthermore, there is a municipal council for the
entire country with 15 members, elected for four years.
Monaco lacks actual political parties, but various
candidate lists compete in the general elections. In 2003,
the Union for Monaco (UPM) won 21 seats in the
National Council, while the former majority list of the
National Democratic Union (UND) received three seats.
By agreement, Monaco is heavily dependent on France, both
politically and in terms of supply. France forced Monaco in
1963 to apply French tax rules to most French citizens in
the country. Monaco is one of the original participating
states in the European Security and Cooperation Conference
(ESC), now the OSCE, and was elected in 1993 in the UN. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of MC and its meanings of Monaco.
The judicial organization consists mainly of peace
judges, a general court, a court of appeal and a supreme
court. Monaco has its own civil law, commercial law, civil
law, criminal law and criminal law, but these are strongly
influenced by French law. The death penalty was abolished in
1962; the last execution took place in 1847.
Heads of State
Princes (since 1856)