Following the 1992 Constitution, the former People's
Republic of Mongolia is an independent, democratic unity
republic. The head of state and military commander-in-chief
are a four-year presidential candidate. Legislative
authority has been added to the great Khural, elected in the
general election for four years. The Assembly has 76
members. The great Khural recognizes the president when
elected and appoints the prime minister and other ministers.
President can veto Meeting, but president veto can be set
aside with 2/3 majority. There is
thus a certain balance between parliamentary and
presidential power. However, the first position is weakened
by the fact that the assembly normally only meets for one
session (at least 50 days) every six months.
Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces as well as the
metropolitan area. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of MN and its meanings of Mongolia.
The judiciary includes the Supreme Court, a court in the
capital, 18 aymag (provincial) and rural (sum) and urban.
The country also has a number of special courts and a
separate constitutional court. The integrity of the
judiciary shall be protected by a general judicial council.
the Supreme Court Chairman, the President of the
Constitutional Court, the Attorney General and the Minister
of Justice are seated. The council nominates, and the major
Khural approves, candidates for Supreme Court. The members
of the Constitutional Court are nominated by the President,
the great Khural and the Supreme Court. The national
prosecutor, the head of the prosecuting authority, is
nominated by the president and approved by the great Khural.
The main emphasis of Mongolia's new foreign policy is on
economic cooperation and efforts to attract investment and
development assistance. Since 1990, Mongolia has sought to
establish broad international contact to reduce dependence
on neighboring China and Russia.
Mongolia works closely with the UN, the World Bank and
the Asian Development Bank. Since the mid-1990s, China has
been the largest investor and trading partner with Japan as
number 2. Since the turn of the millennium, China has
received about 60 percent of Mongolia's exports and
responded to nearly 20 percent of its imports.
Mongolia also has a good relationship with the United
States. A Mongolian troop contingent of 150 men to the
US-led coalition in Iraq was withdrawn in September 2008. At
the beginning of 2009, Mongolia participated with 250
soldiers in the UN peacekeeping operation in Liberia.
Good relations and a balanced relationship with Russia as
the main supplier of energy, and with China as the most
important export market, are Mongolia's foreign policy
priority and constant challenge. At the bottom of these
bilateral relations are friendship and cooperation
agreements with Russia (1993) and China (1994), based on the
so-called five principles of peaceful coexistence.
Mongolia shows growing interest in regional cooperation
and joined the ASEAN Regional Forum in 1998. Mongolia was
formally admitted as a member of the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM)
in 2008, a forum for discussions between the EU and ASEAN
countries. In 2007, Mongolia and the EFTA countries signed a
joint declaration to strengthen economic cooperation and
Norway - Mongolia
There has traditionally been very little contact between
Norway and Mongolia, but with somewhat more frequent visitor
exchange in recent years. Crown Prince Haakon visited
Mongolia in 2008 as goodwill ambassador for the United
Nations Development Program, UNDP. President Elbegdorj
visited Norway in 2012, as the first Mongolian head of state
ever. The Embassy of Norway in Beijing is accredited to
Mongolia, while Mongolia covers Norway from its embassy in
Brussels. New embassy is being established in Stockholm with
planned site accreditation for Norway.
The Norwegian Lutheran Mission Mission has had
assistance-oriented activities in Mongolia since 1994.
According to Norad, the total Norwegian assistance to
Mongolia amounted to NOK 3.9 million in 2013, somewhat less
than in previous years.
Foreign policy history
Mongolia was subject to China from the late 1300s and
from 1924 a Soviet vassal state. From the revolution of
1924, when Mongolia became the world's second communist
country, to the late 1980s, Mongolia followed the Soviet
Union's foreign policy line. China first recognized the
Mongolian People's Republic in 1946. Major Soviet forces
were stationed along Mongolia's border with China. Relations
with China were tense for a long time, but were declared
normalized in 1992, following the withdrawal of Soviet
troops. Almost all of Mongolia's foreign trade had been with
the Soviet Union and other eastern bloc countries.
The total force figure for Mongolia's armed forces is
9700 active personnel, with a reserve of 137,000 personnel
(2018, IISS). In addition, 7500 semi-military border guards,
security forces, and more. Mongolia has 12 months of
conscription for men aged 18 to 25 years. The army is
equipped with older Soviet equipment, and the country has a
small air force without fighter aircraft. Mongolia
participates in several international operations.
The Army has a workforce of 8900 active personnel,
including 3300 conscripts. Materials included, among others,
420 tanks (370 T-54 and T-55, and 50 T-72), 310 storm tanks
and 210 armored personnel vehicles.
The Air Force has a workforce of 800 active personnel,
three light transport aircraft and 12 helicopters.
Mongolia participated in 2018, among others, in the NATO
operation in Afghanistan (Resolute Support Mission)
with 120 personnel, and in the UN operation in South Sudan (UNMISS)
with 867 personnel and seven observers.