Following the 1987 Constitution, most recently amended in
2000, Nicaragua is a unified state, democratic republic. The
supreme executive is added to the head of state, the
president, who is also the head of government and military
The president is elected (from 1995) for five years in
direct elections, possibly with two rounds of elections if
no candidate gets more than 35 percent of the vote and at
least 5 percent more than the next candidate in the first
place. The president could not be re-elected immediately
until 2009, when the Supreme Court reversed the legislative
text so that the incumbent president and its meanings of
re-election. In 2014, the National Assembly removed all
restrictions on re-election and made it legal for the
president to run for election for an unlimited number of
Legislative authority has been added to the National
Assembly, consisting of 90 members elected in general
elections according to the principle of proportionality,
plus up to two other members: the previous president and the
losing presidential candidate with the most votes. The
assembly is elected for five years. The Assembly's
resolution can be stopped, in whole or in part, by a
presidential vote, if this is abolished within 15 days. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of NI and its meanings of Nicaragua.
Administratively, the country is divided into 15
ministries and two autonomous regions. There are also
elected local government bodies at the local level, while
the local areas were previously state-controlled. The two
autonomous regions are located on the Atlantic coast, where
a large proportion of the inhabitants are American
The judiciary includes, among other things, a Supreme
Court, appeals courts and a number of first instance courts.
Supreme Court judges are appointed by the National Assembly.
The Supreme Court administers the judiciary.
Nicaragua has volunteered military service with 18 to 36
months of service. The total force numbers for Nicaragua's
armed forces are around 12,000 active personnel (2018, IISS).
The material of the forces is largely outdated, and the Air
Force has no fighter aircraft.
The army has a strength of about 10,000 active personnel.
Materials include 82 tanks (62 T-55 and 20 T-72), 20
clearing wagons, about 17 storm tanks, about 90 armored
personnel vehicles and 12 armored fighters. In addition, the
army has medium-heavy artillery.
The Air Force has a force of 1,200 active personnel, nine
light transport aircraft, two training aircraft, and nine
helicopters. In addition, the Air Force has anti-aircraft
The Navy has a force of about 800 active personnel, and
eight patrol vessels.