Following the 1993 constitution, Peru is a unified state
and presidential democratic republic. The president is
elected in the general election (with a vote) for five years
and can be re-elected once. The President has wide powers;
he appoints the government, ambassadors and senior officers
and can declare a state of emergency for up to 60 days.
Legislative authority has been added to Congress, which has
120 members and is elected in general elections for five
years; the whole country is one constituency. A 2003
decision to create a two-chamber parliament (150 seats plus
a 50-seat senate) has not come into force as of 2006.
Also see Peru Political Reviews.
Since independence in the 1820s, Peru's government has
constantly switched between civil and military rule. The
policy is characterized by many parties and factions within
the parties. The policy has also been characterized by the
fight against guerrilla groups such as Sendero Luminoso and
Tupac Amaru (MRTA).
Peru is divided into 24 ministries and a special
constitutional area; further in 278 regional districts.
Local governing bodies have modest power. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of PE and its meanings of Peru.
The judiciary includes Supreme Court with President and
17 members, convicts and first instance courts. Supreme
Court judges are appointed by a Judicial National Council
consisting of nine independently elected members. A
seven-member constitutional court, elected by Congress for
five years, can interpret the Constitution and declare laws
and other government decisions unconstitutional.
Peru has a military service after being selected for 12
months. Peru participates in UN peacekeeping operations. The
total force numbers for Peru's armed forces are 81,000
active personnel, with a reserve of 188,000 personnel (2018,
IISS). In addition, there are 77,000 semi-military national
The army has a workforce of 47,500 active personnel.
Material comprising 165 tanks of a T-55, 96 facilitate tanks
category AMX-13, 95 reconnaissance vehicles, 295 armored
personnel carriers, 22 armored fighters and 47
self-propelled artillery, of which 35 even slightly
anti-aircraft artillery. In addition, the Army has 16 light
transport aircraft, four training aircraft, 48 helicopters,
heavy artillery, short-range air defense missiles and air
The Air Force has a workforce of 9500 active personnel.
Material comprising 20 fighters of a MiG-29, 12 fighter
central Mirage 2000, 36 attack aircraft (18 A-37B Dragonfly
and 18 Su-25), six reconnaissance, 37 transport, 68 trainers
(of which 10, which also can be used as attack aircraft),
and 70 helicopters, of which 18 combat helicopters (16 Mi-25
and two Mi-35).
The Navy has a workforce of 24,000 active personnel,
including 4,000 Marines and 1,000 Coast Guard personnel. The
fleet comprises six tactical submarines, seven frigates, one
dock landing vessel, 12 patrol vessels, nine landings, and
25 logistics and auxiliary vessels. In addition, the Navy
has 20 aircraft and 28 helicopters.
The Coast Guard has 38 patrol vessels, one aid vessel,
and three aircraft.
In 2018, Peru participated in the UN operation in the
Central African Republic (MINUSCA) with 209 personnel and
four observers. In addition, Peru participated with
observers and a small number of personnel in UN operations
in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO), in Sudan (UNAMID
and UNISFA), and in South Sudan (UNMISS).