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Slovakia's Political System

Following the 1992 Constitution, most recently amended in 2001, Slovakia is a unified state democratic republic. The head of state, the president, is elected from 2001 by direct election for five years with the possibility of one re-election; previously he was elected by the National Assembly - the Slovak National Council. Unlike many other countries, it is not enough to get the majority of votes cast in the first place to avoid a second ballot. In order to be elected in the first round of elections, the candidate must have received the votes of more than half of the eligible voters.

Government and Politics of Slovakia

The President is responsible to the National Council. Although the president plays a certain political role, the executive rests primarily with the prime minister and the government.

The Legislative Assembly, the National Council, has 150 members, elected for four years in general elections in proportional elections. The party system is relatively fragmented, and coalition governments have been the usual one.

The main political parties are smerig-SD, SDKÚ, KDH, SaS, OL'aNO and Most-Híd.


Administratively, Slovakia is divided into eight regions (kraje) and further into 79 districts (okresy), all led by elected councils. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of SK and its meanings of Slovakia.


The judiciary includes a supreme court, county courts and district courts. It is also a constitutional court of its own. Judges are elected by the National Council. The legislation is characterized by Austro-Hungarian examples.

Presidents of Slovakia

Presidents of Slovakia since 1993.

Period President
1993 Vladimir Mečiar *)
1993-1998 Michal Kováč
1998 Vladimír Mečiar *)
1998-1999 Mikuláš Dzurinda *)
1999-2004 Rudolf Schuster
2004-2014 Ivan Gašparović
2014- Andrei Kiska

*) Functioning

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