China's constitution of 1947, after Chiang Kai-shek's
defeat of the Communists, was limited to Taiwan from 1949,
most recently changed in 2005. Taiwan is a unified state
republic with a fairly democratic system of government. The
chief executive is added to the head of state, the
president. He is elected in the general election for a term
of four years and may be re-elected once. The president has
considerable powers, but they have been somewhat reduced by
the recent constitutional amendments.
Following the 1947 Constitution, Taiwan's rule of law is
based on the principle of five governing institutions (yuan).
The system was somewhat simplified in 2005, among other
things. the former National Council of 300 members was
dissolved. The legislative yuan, which is the only chamber
of the National Assembly from 2005, is elected in the
general election for three (previously four) years. It has
113 seats (previously 225) from 2007. The executive yuan,
the government, is responsible to the National Assembly; the
prime minister is appointed by the president.
Formally, Taiwan is still a province (in a unified
China). Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of TW and its meanings of Taiwan. Taiwan Province is locally divided into 16 counties
(hsien). In addition, there are five urban
municipalities and two metropolitan areas of special status
(Taipei and Kaohsiung). There are elected bodies at the
The judiciary is headed by the judicial yuan's judges,
nominated and nominated for nine years by the president,
with the consent of the National Assembly. Furthermore,
there is a Supreme Court which is the third and final court
in both civil and criminal cases.
Taiwan has 12 months of conscription. The total force
figures for Taiwan's armed forces are 163,000 active
personnel, with a reserve of 1,657,000 personnel (2018, IISS).
In addition, 11 450 semi-military members are assigned to
the coast guard.
The force numbers for the army are about 88,000,
including military police. Heavy materials include 565 tanks
(365 M48, and 200 M60), 625 lightweight M41 and Type 64
tanks, 225 storm armor (based on M113) and 1220 armored
personnel vehicles. In addition, the Army has 273
helicopters, of which 96 combat helicopters (67 Cobra and 29
Apache), and light drones.
The Air Force has a workforce of 35,000 active personnel.
Materials include 285 fighter aircraft (of which 87 F-5
Tiger II, 143 F-16, and 55 Mirage 2000), 127 fighter
aircraft (F-CK-1 Ching Kuo, developed in Taiwan), 12
anti-submarine aircraft, one EK aircraft, six AEW & C planes
of a Hawkeye seven reconnaissance, 33 transport, 97
trainers, and 19 helicopters.
The Navy has a workforce of 40,000 active personnel,
including 10,000 Marines. The fleet includes four tactical
submarines, four cruisers (of the American Kidd class), 22
frigates, one dock landing vessel (of the American Anchorage
class), one command ship, 44 patrol vessels, nine
minesweepers, 55 landing craft, and 12 logistics and
auxiliary vessels. In addition, the Navy has 30 helicopters
and 29 medium-heavy drones.
The Coast Guard has a personnel force of 11 450 personnel
and 161 patrol vessels.