Following the 1992 Constitution, amended in 2002,
Uzbekistan is a secular, democratic, unified state and
presidential republic. The head of state, the president, is
elected to the general elections for seven years and cannot
sit for more than two consecutive terms. He appoints the
Prime Minister and the Government, but formally the
appointments must be approved by the Supreme Assembly. The
government is accountable to the president. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of UZ and its meanings of Uzbekistan. The president is
a military commander. Legislative authority has been added
to a parliament with two chambers. House of Representatives
(Oliy Majlis)is elected in the general election for
five years and has 120 members. The Senate has 100 members,
84 elected by the county assemblies for five years and 16
elected by the president. Politics is dominated by the
president and parties loyal to him, including the former
Communist Party. It is the last Soviet leader, Islam Karimov,
who has been president since 1990, re-elected by 2000.
The governance has been relatively authoritarian, which
has contributed to some extent to stability, at least in the
short term. However, it also reflects the concern of the
rulers that the country should be torn apart by religious
and ethnic strife. Parties on religious or ethnic grounds
Administratively, the rather centrally governed country
is divided into 12 counties (oblasts), an
autonomous republic, Karakalpakia and the metropolitan area.
There are elected councils in the counties, while the
executive rests with fairly independent state-appointed
governors (khokims). Karakalpakia has its own
governance, with a president-elect.
The Supreme Courts include a Constitutional Court, the
Supreme Court and the Supreme Economic Court. Furthermore,
there are courts at county and local level. Karakalpakia has
its own judicial system, with a Supreme Court as the supreme
court. The prosecuting authority is headed by a general
attorney. He also oversees justice. The supreme
representatives of the judiciary are appointed by the
president, but must be approved by the House of
Uzbekistan has military service with the first 12 months
of service. The total force figures for Uzbekistan's armed
forces are 48,000 active personnel (2018, IISS). In addition
there are about 20,000 semi-military, of which up to 19,000
personnel in internal security forces and a national guard
of 1,000 personnel.
The Army has a strength of 24,500 active personnel.
Materials include 340 tanks (of which 170 are T-62, 100
T-64, and 70 T-72), 19 clearing vehicles, 270 storm tanks,
359 armored personnel vehicles and about 83 self-propelled
artillery. In addition, the army has heavy artillery.
The Air Force has a force of 7500 active personnel.
Material comprising 12 fighters of a MiG-29, 13 fighter
aircraft of the type Su-27, 16 attack aircraft of the type
Su-25, 26 EK-fly, 13 ELINT aircraft, seven transport
aircraft, 14 trainers, and 98 helicopters, of which 29
combat helicopters of type Mi-24. In addition, the Air Force
has long range air defense missiles.