State and politics
The Vatican City is a sovereign and internationally
recognized state. The Pope is the head of state and
at the same time bishop of Rome as well as the head of the
Catholic Church. The papal office, the Holy See (Latin
Seʹdes saʹncta), based in the Vatican City, has
diplomatic representatives (nunts and pronunts) in more than
120 countries. These, like the Vatican's foreign policy, are
led by a secretary of state. It is also at the Holy See that
other countries, including Sweden, have envoys. In daily
speech, the term Vatican is used to denote both the state
and the "chair".
The Vatican City is ruled by the Pope, who is elected for
life by the Conclave. This consists of the cardinals in the
world who are under 80, around 120 people. The Pope appoints
a papal commission headed by a president who oversees the
administration of the Vatican. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of VT and its meanings of Vatican. Despite its smallness, the
Vatican State plays a significant political role in its role
as the central leader of the worldwide Catholic Church. The
central chair of the Holy See is the Pope with the Holy
Cardinal College at his side. The Cardinals are appointed
for life by the Pope. The Roman Catholic Church's highest
administrative leadership, the Curia, is made up of the
Cardinals in Rome. They also function as the Pope's court.
The Vatican State Bank, IOR (Italian Istituto per le
Opere di Religione), is led by high priests. The
capital is estimated at approximately $ 4 billion (1995).
The bank manages investments in the world and also
administers the "Petersen voltage", ie. voluntary
contributions from Catholics around the world.
The most important sources of law in the Vatican City are
Codex juris canonici and various statutes issued by
the Pope or after the Pope's authorization. Italian law is a
subsidiary (second-hand) source of law. The members of the
Vatican City Courts, including a Court of Appeal, Sacra
Romana Rota, are appointed by the Pope. The death
penalty was abolished in 1969.