Following the 1980 Constitution, Zimbabwe is a unified
state, presidential and one-party-dominated republic. The
presidential position was originally constitutional, but has
been executive since 1987. The president is the head of
state and is elected in direct elections for six years;
there are no re-election restrictions. He appoints and heads
the government and is also military commander. Legislative
authority has been added to the parliament, which from 2005
has two chambers. Assembly Hall (House of Assembly) has
150 members; 120 are elected in general elections, twelve
are nominated by the president, while the other seats go to
ten traditional chieftains and the eight provincial
governors. The House has been sitting for six years and is
now elected/nominated at the same time as the President.
The restored Senate has 66 members; 50 elected in direct
elections for five years, six nominated by the president and
ten by the Board of Governors. The recent elections have
been marked by overt electoral fraud to secure re-election
for President Robert Mugabe and his party ZANU.
A council of its own plays an advisory role. The chiefs
are appointed by the president, but according to customary
rules of succession.
Mugabe's leadership style and the harassment of the
opposition have led to economic disaster and international
isolation. The disputed land redistribution program,
launched in 2000, led to economic collapse, food shortages
and emigration of many whites. Zimbabwe has a well-developed
infrastructure, significant mineral resources and previously
also relatively efficient agriculture. But the country has
nevertheless stagnated since independence. Political unrest
and abuse of power, ideology-driven reforms, drought, high
population growth and serious health problems (AIDS) are
major causes of stagnation.
Administratively, Zimbabwe is divided into eight
provinces as well as two urban areas, led by governors
appointed by the president. Locally, the board is taken care
of by elected councils, led by mayors. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of ZW and its meanings of Zimbabwe.
The judiciary is still characterized by Roman-Dutch law,
but African customary law also plays a role. The Supreme
Court is the Supreme Court, with a justice and four judges
(appeals judges). Except in cases of fundamental rights, it
is a pure appellate court. Nationally, there is also a
High Court, comprising justice, the presiding judge and
eleven other judges. Furthermore, there are regional courts
and magistrate courts with both civil and criminal
The total force figures for Zimbabwe's armed forces are
around 29,000 active personnel (2018, IISS). In addition,
there are 21 800 semi-military police forces.
The army has a strength of about 25,000 active personnel.
The equipment includes 40 tanks (30 type 59 and ten type
69), 115 light trucks, about two storm tanks, 30 armored
personnel vehicles, and 12 self-propelled artillery. In
addition, the Army has medium-heavy artillery and
The Air Force has a strength of 4,000 active personnel.
The material includes nine fighters category F-7, two
reconnaissance, 25 facilitate transport, 33 trainers (ten of
which can also be used as light combat aircraft, and 13 can
also be used as light attack aircraft), and 18 helicopters
(which six combat helicopters of the type mi-35).
Zimbabwe participated in 2018 with observers and a small
number of personnel in the UN operations in Sudan (UNAMID
and UNISFA), and in South Sudan.
Presidents of Zimbabwe
||Canaan Sodindo Banana