Bhutan Government and Politics

Located on the escarpment of the immense Tibetan base and on the southern slope of the Himālaya, Bhutan is surrounded to the North by the most sublime peaks of that stretch of chain from which the numerous offshoots branch off and gradually slope down to become hills near the southern border. The chains have general direction NO. SELF.; all the slopes are very steep and the very deep valleys are interrupted by magnificent waterfalls. The elevated area of ​​the mountain is made up of gneiss emerging from the layers of mica schists and talcoscists: limestone formations are very extensive. From the very high northern peaks that exceed 6000 and even 7000 m. numerous rivers descend towards S., which flow into the Brahmaputra and which on their Bhutanese journey, given the steep slope in rocky beds, they are very precipitous and not fordable in the rainy season. Proceeding from the OR. at the E. the main ones are: the Di-chu (chu, in Tibetan = water, river), the Amo-chu or Torsa, the Chin-chu, the Ma-chu, the Mati-chu and the Dangme-chu. Various stretches of some of these rivers remain unexplored to this day.

In the vegetation, up to 4600 m. a thick forest prevails, rich in tree varieties; higher up are conifers and then rhododendrons, famous for the beauty of their blooms. The fauna seems to be rich, in which numerous elephants, leopards, deer, rhinos, bears, flies and galeopithecs are represented. The climate is very varied in terms of temperature, which is in relation to altitude, with less abundant rainfall than in Upper Bengal and Assam.

The surface of Bhutan is 51,800 sq km, the population is estimated at about 250,000 residents of Tibetan race (mainly Mech Kachari, of the Bodo group) and of Buddhist religion, of robust constitution and courageous and violent disposition. It is divided into three classes: the priests, the jenlops or chiefs, and the peasants. The winter capital is Punaka or Dosen (pop. 34,000 residents, at 1381 meters above sea level), the summer capital Tashichödzong, further down, to S. of the former. Other cities are Paro, Wangdü Potrang, Tongsa on the way from Assam to Lhasa, Byaka. Bhutan is governed by a maharajah, religious and civil leader, of a hereditary dynasty established in 1907. Currently the British government has no internal interference in the state, but controls its foreign relations and pays it an annual subsidy.

Agriculture can be said to be relatively prosperous; corn ripens up to 2200 m. In the highest area, breeding prevails. The Tangan, a mountain horse, brother of the Nepalese, is highly regarded for its tireless activity. The industries have an entirely local character and use.

State and politics

Bhutan Country Flag

Reference: Bhutan Flag Meaning

According to, Bhutan is a constitutional monarchy. The adoption of a democratic constitution in 2008 transferred a significant portion of the executive power from the king, drunken gyalpo, to Parliament and the government. The king is head of state but must retire at age 65 and hand over the office to the crown prince or crown princess, provided that the person concerned has reached the age of 21.

Parliament consists of two chambers, the National Assembly with a maximum of 55 members (currently 47), all elected, and the National Council with 25 members, of which 20 elected and five nominated by the King. Both chambers are elected for five years, but the National Assembly can be dissolved prematurely on the Prime Minister’s recommendation or following a declaration of confidence in the government.

Buddhism, according to the constitution, constitutes Bhutan’s spiritual heritage, but strict distinction is made between religion and politics. The king is the protector of all religions in the country.

The country of Bhutan is divided into twenty districts, dzongkhag, each with a popularly elected political assembly, led by an unpolitical executive official, dzongda. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of BT and its meanings of Bhutan.

Bhutan has been a member of the UN since 1971 and the South Asian cooperation organization SAARC since its inception in 1985 and is active in the alliance-free movement. The country has close ties with India, but a new friendship agreement between the countries in 2007 gave Bhutan greater independence, i.e. in foreign policy.


The country’s legal order has a British character with elements of local custom. The judiciary has three bodies, where the members of the Supreme Court are appointed by the king. The death penalty was abolished for all crimes in 2004. The last known execution took place in 1964.

Human Rights

The constitution of 2008 with the transition from absolute monarchy to democracy meant an improvement in human rights, but not in all areas. Religious and ethnic minorities are still being discriminated against and there are human trafficking and unexplained disappearances by the political opposition. Nepalese-speaking Bhutanese are subject to discrimination and prejudice in working life.

A major problem is forced labor and sexual exploitation. Bhutanese girls working as maids are particularly vulnerable and vulnerable to human trafficking for sexual purposes. Many times they are forced to work on financial debts under threat of violence. Rural children are often put into forced labor after being transported to the cities by their relatives for the purpose of education.

Freedom of speech and press has deteriorated and in one year Bhutan fell to 104th place 92 out of the 180 countries reviewed by Reporters without Borders Press Freedom Index for 2015. Freedom of speech is also restricted in the law when it is forbidden to address criticism of the king.

Heads of State


1907-26 Ugyen Wangchuk
1926-52 Jigme Wangchuk
1952-72 Jigme Dorji Wangchuk
1972-2006 Jigme Singye Wangchuk
2006- Jigme Khesar Namgyal Wangchuk

Bhutan Head of Government

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