Estonia Politics and Culture
Estonian politics is carried out within the framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic in which the Estonian Prime Minister is the head of government and of a multi-party system. The political culture is very stable in Estonia, where power is held between two and three parties, which have been in domestic politics for a long time. This situation is similar to other northern European countries.
The Estonian Parliament (Estonian: Riigikoguel) or Legislative Branch is elected by the people for a term of four years by proportional representation. The Estonian political system operates under a framework established in the 1992 constitutional document. The Estonian Parliament has 101 members and influences the state government mainly by determining the income and expenditures of the state (the establishment of taxes and the approval of the budget). At the same time, Parliament has the right to present declarations and appeals to the Estonian population, ratify and denounce international treaties with other states and international organizations and decide on government loans.
The Estonian Government (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) or the Executive Branch consists of the Estonian Prime Minister, appointed by the President and approved by Parliament. The government exercises executive power in accordance with the Estonian Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia and is composed of 12 ministers, including the prime minister. The prime minister also has the right to appoint other ministers, who will be assigned an issue to be discussed and who do not have a ministry for control, becoming a minister without a portfolio who is the minister of the Regions.
The prime minister has the right to appoint a maximum of three ministers, based on the limit of ministers in a government of 15. It is also known as the cabinet. The cabinet carries out the country’s domestic and foreign policy, shaped by parliament, directs and coordinates the work of government institutions, and is fully responsible for everything that occurs within the authority of the executive branch. The government, headed by the Prime Minister, represents the political leadership of the country and makes decisions on behalf of the entire executive branch.
According to the Estonian Constitution (Estonian: põhiseadus) the supreme power of the State resides with the people. The people exercise their supreme state power in Riigikogu elections through citizens who have the right to vote. The supreme judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court or Riigikohus, with 19 magistrates. The President of the Supreme Court is appointed by Parliament for nine years on the proposal of the President. The official head of state is the President of Estonia, who gives assent to the laws passed by the Riigikogu, he also has the right to revoke and propose new laws.
Estonia has been a member of the United Nations League from September 22, 1921. He has been a member of the United Nations since 17 of September of 1991, and NATO since the 29 of March of 2004, and the European Union from 1 of maypole of 2004.In addition, Estonia has signed the Kyoto Protocol. Estonia is a member of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). As an OSCE participating State, Estonia’s international commitments are subject to monitoring under the mandate of the US Commission in Helsinki.
Since regaining its independence, Estonia has pursued a foreign policy of close cooperation with its Western European partners. The two most important policy objectives in this regard have been accession to NATO and the European Union, achieved in March and May 2004, respectively. Estonia’s international realignment to the West has been accompanied by a general deterioration in relations with Russia.
According to andyeducation, Estonian culture incorporates indigenous heritage, represented by the Estonian language and the sauna, with the main Nordic and European cultural aspects. Due to its history and geography, Estonian culture has been influenced by the traditions of the various peoples of the adjacent Finnish, Baltic, Slavic and Germanic area, as well as the cultural evolution of the former ruling powers, Sweden and Russia..
Traditionally, Estonia has been seen as an area of rivalry between Western and Eastern Europe on many levels. An example of this geopolitical legacy is an exceptional combination of nationally recognized Christian traditions: a Western Protestant and an Eastern Orthodox Church. Like the dominant culture in the Nordic countries, Estonian culture can be seen to be based on ascetic realities of the environment and traditional livelihoods, inherited from relatively broad egalitarianism for practical reasons, and ideals of closeness to life. nature and self-reliance.
The Estonian Academy of Fine Arts (Estonian: Eesti Kunstiakadeemia, EKA) is for higher education in art, design, architecture, media, art history and conservation, while the Viljandi Academy of Culture of the University of Tartu, has a focus on popularizing native culture through curricula, such as native construction, traditional blacksmithing, Aboriginal textile design, traditional crafts and traditional music, as well as jazz and sacred music.