Georgia Government and Politics
According to AllCityCodes.com, the people of the Caucasus are considered to be the creators of metallurgy. In the 2nd millennium BCE they entered the Bronze Age, and it is believed during this period that the ancestors of the present Georgians formed their first tribes. In Homer’s poems and in Greek traditional stories, the kingdom of Colquida is said to have been formed in the 6th century BCE Two centuries later, the legendary chief Farnavaz created the kingdom of Iberia in the eastern part of present-day Georgia. These two kingdoms were the first Georgian states – a result of the association between the area’s ancient agricultural tribes. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of GA and its meanings of Georgia.
Colquida and Iberia were first subjugated to Greece and since Rome during Pompeius’ campaigns in the 1st century BCE In 337, King Mirian of Iberia introduced Christianity as official religion. Like the Armenian church, the Georgian church in 506 broke with Rome to form a new church, headquartered in Tiflis (today Tbilisi).
From being a city of secondary importance, Tiflis became the capital of First Iberia and then Georgia after the assembly process in 8-9. century. In the 6-10. century both kingdoms were subject to respectively. the Sasanids in Iran, Byzan and the Arab Caliphate, all fighting for the area. Feudal Georgia flourished in the 11th and 12th centuries under the builder David (1089-1125) and Queen Tamara (1184-1213).
In the 13th and 14th centuries, Georgia was invaded by the Tartars and Timur Lenk (Tamerlán). In the 15th century, the kingdom was divided into small principals and was in it 16-18. century goals for respectively. Turkish and Iranian expansion. There was a major revolt against the Turks and Iranians: in 1625 under the leadership of Gueorgui Saakadze and in 1629. In the second half of the 18th century, the area gradually came within the Russian sphere of influence.
With the Treaty of Gueorguievsk (1783), Russia established its protectorate in Eastern Georgia, which in 1801 was incorporated into the Russian Empire. In the second half of the 19th century the same thing happened to western Georgia – Tiflis and Kutaisi. The Georgian provinces were incorporated into Transcaucasia, ruled by a deputy king appointed by the Czar.
The Russian annexation had a number of negative consequences for the Georgian population. The people’s own language was eliminated from the administrative documents, banned in literature and in schools, to be replaced with Russian. The National Georgian Church was curtailed, its patriarchs deported and replaced with Russian Orthodox bishops. At the same time, the Czarist government promoted the emigration of Russians to all the Georgian cities. This helps explain the unusual strength of the revolutionary movement in Georgia. This applies to both the nationalist, populist and social democratic Marxist currents. It was in the latter that Iosif Dzhugashvili – better known by the pseudonym Stalin- began his political career. After numerous revolts in the latter half of the 19th century, Georgians played a central role in the revolution that shook the empire in 1905.
Tbilisi, Georgia’s Capital, $ 1.12 Million residents (2014). The city extends approximately 30 km on both sides of the Kura River (Mtkvari) and is a hub of the Caucasian railway and road system. It is also an important industrial city with a wide range of heavy, light and chemical industries. As a Georgian cultural center, the city houses the Academy of Sciences, several universities, theaters, museums and a botanical garden. In a pantheon for Georgian celebrities is also the tomb of the Russian poet Griboyedov.
The old town on the right side of the river, with its narrow streets and the houses’ traditional, beautifully carved, closed wooden balconies, has retained medieval features, although most houses are from the 1800’s. On a hilltop above the old town lies the ruins of the 300-t Narikala fortress. High on the left is the Church of the Metekhi from the 1280’s, and in the old town is the Cathedral of Zion from 500-600-t. The other districts with many late-classist buildings are characterized by the longstanding Russian/Soviet influence. The city got a subway in 1966 and also has a couple of cogwheels.
An on-site fortress is known from 300-t. The city is thought to have been founded by King Vakhtang Gorgasali in 458, and it soon became the capital of the Kartli kingdom. The city gained its heyday as a Georgian capital after the expulsion of the Arabs in 1122, and until the ravages of Timur Lenk in the late 1300’s. it was one of the area’s richest and most beautiful cities. In 1801, Tbilisi was incorporated into Russia, but the city remained an administrative center; in 1921 it became the capital of the Soviet Republic of Georgia.