India Government and Politics
According to AllCityCodes.com, India is a horn of plenty and a jungle of opposites. India can never be exhausted, but after each visit, you will find that something of this country of more than three million square kilometers and inhabited by more than a billion people has gone unexperienced and unseen.
The woman’s position is confusing to understand for Europeans. Although the country has had a female prime minister, and although some prime ministers in the states have been women, the Indian woman is a very withdrawn being who can only wait for a better fate by being born as a man in the next life. But class and caste are more important than gender in any context. A Brahminical woman stands socially above a man in the fold, just as a rich woman socially faces a poor man on the social ladder. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of IN and its meanings of India.
Women have as their primary task to give birth to the sons of the family. Less is required of a daughter than of a son. Young girls are therefore quite free and often avoid the demands of upbringing and education that fathers impose on their sons. But at marriage there is a sudden ending to the good days of the girls. It is the marriage a girl is brought up to. First of all, she must be a good daughter-in-law, because she will have far more to do with her mother-in-law than with her husband. She spends her day in the women’s section of the house, and only meets her husband in completely private moments.
When a girl marries, she leaves the family forever and travels to a foreign mother-in-law and a foreign husband with whom she must spend life. As a newlywed wife, the girl will have the lowest status in her new family. She can easily be blamed for everything that goes wrong. The relationship between mother-in-law and daughter-in-law is always bad and no one expects it to be good. Families are often divided because women cannot work together. According to tradition, the husband is not allowed to publicly show interest in his wife. The situation does not change until she becomes pregnant. Then the mother-in-law relaxes and can show both tenderness and understanding. The man becomes proud and the family becomes happy.
With a child in wait, the woman has become a full-fledged human being. If she gives the family a son, everything is won, but a daughter is not bad either. She must remain in the innermost rooms of the house, but she is no longer the one who is always stepped on. If she doesn’t have children, it’s a curse. The Indian Widow Burning was a voluntary cause for childless women who would follow their husbands to better fields, rather than living the unbridled fate of the earth as a childless widow.
Three thousand years BCE, the inhabitants of the Indus River – in present-day Pakistan – had already built about a hundred cities. In the largest – i.e. Harappa and Mohenjo Daro – built the huge temples, developed a writing language that has not yet been interpreted and carved perfectly cylindrical marks. The community was based on irrigation farming. The economy flourished, providing a basis for extensive trade in the Indian Ocean and the Himalayas. The Indus River was the main transport route for this trade. There is not much else we know about this culture, political organization or historical development. After 500 years of existence, the area was ravaged by invading forces that killed the population and destroyed its civilization.
Around the 16th century BCE, waves of Indo-Europeans arrived from Afghanistan, gradually conquering the subcontinent. They were equipped with weapons of iron, protected by armor and with tanks. They used this power to subdue locals and establish a number of principals. The civilization they developed, which was later renamed Veda, had its basis in a rigid caste system in which invaders constituted the upper class. Ariana or ayriana meant nobleman, and was used to identify Indo-Europeans together. From this comes the later word arias.
The Iranian and Greek invasions in the 6-4. century BCE did not affect India’s most powerful state, Magadha, located in the Ganges Valley. During Ashoka’s (274 – 232 BCE) reign, this kingdom was extended to the entire subcontinent – except the southernmost part. From this point on, one can speak of an Indian civilization: Ashoka and his descendants conducted a homogenization of the culture and incorporated the teachings of Gautama Siddhartha (Buddha, 563-483 BCE). In it 1-3. century, this kingdom began to crack in pressure from the new states of Kusana and Ksatrapa in the northwest.
However, during the Gupta dynasty (3-6th century) in Magadha, a new rally began, which became one of the most brilliant in Indian culture. The 8th century Islamic expansion was not able to coerce India. It did not happen until 4 centuries later. Waves of Islamic peoples from Central Asia eventually invaded the subcontinent. This period culminated with the invasion of the Tartars under the leadership of Timur. In 1505-25, one of his descendants, Babur, founded the empire known as the Storm Mogul empire with the capital of Delhi.