Lebanon Government and Politics

Lebanon is, according to the constitution, a unified state, parliamentary – democratic republic. The head of state, the president, is elected in the general election for six years and cannot be re-elected. The constitution of 1926 has been changed several times, including a particularly important change at the end of the civil war in 1990, was the Taif Agreement of 1989.

Lebanon Country Flag


Land area 10,400 km²
Total population 5,469,612
Population density (per km²) 525.9
Capital Beirut
Official language Arabic
Income per capita $ 19,600
Currency Lebanese pound
ISO 3166 code LB
Internet TLD .lb
License plate RL
Telephone code +961
Time zone UTC + 2
Geographic coordinates 33 50 N, 35 50 O

Executive power

Before 1990, the president was the country’s real leader. Under the Taif agreement, the president has a more ceremonial function, and the supreme executive power is added to the prime minister and the government. The government is appointed by the president, but after consultation with the president of the National Assembly; the government is also responsible to the assembly. The Assembly has legislative authority and is elected in the general election for four years. It has 128 members.

Separation of powers

Lebanon’s politics are characterized by the country’s religious divide between Christians, especially Maronites, and Muslims and by contradictions based on them. In 1943, a national pact was signed which carried out a distribution of power among the confessional groups in the country. As the numerical relationship between Christians and Muslims shifted in Muslim favor, the National Pact’s provisions were diluted, which led to growing unrest and was one of the causes of the Lebanese civil war of 1975-1990.

The Taif Agreement revised the National Pact; here it was agreed that the seats in the National Assembly and the government should be shared equally between Christians and Muslims, that the President should be a Maronite and the Prime Minister of Sunni Muslim; agreement also provides for the chairman and vice chairman of the meeting shall be Shia Muslim and Druse, the defense minister to be Greek Orthodox and the chief of defense must be Maronite. However, the parties do not quite match the religious divisions, and this helps to create complicated lines of conflict. The country is also characterized by various military factions (Hezbollah) and foreign forces (Syria, Israel) has been in control of parts of the country.


Administratively, the country is divided into six governorates, governed by state prefects.


The legal system is based on French law. However, the various religious groups also have their own civil courts. In the secular system, 56 single-dish dishes constitute the lowest level. There are eleven appellate courts and four courts of appeal, with the first of the courts of appeal as the country’s supreme court. There is also a Council of State which deals with administrative law cases and a judicial court that handles matters relating to state security.

Lebanon’s defense

The total force figures for Lebanon’s armed forces are 60,000 active personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, some 20,000 semi-military security forces are arriving. Hezbollah has suffered several defeats in recent years, but still has significant strength in Lebanon. The UN has peacekeeping forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL and UNTSO), which together comprise about 10,000 observers and personnel.


The army has a workforce of 56,600 active personnel. Materials include 334 tanks (92 M48, 10 M60, 185 T-54, and 47 T-55), 55 light vehicles, 48 storm tanks and 1378 armored personnel vehicles, 12 self-propelled M109 artillery, 15 armored fighters, and eight medium- duty drones. In addition, the army heavy artillery, anti-aircraft missiles short range and short range air defense artillery.

Air Force

The Air Force has a workforce of 1,600 active personnel. Materials include three reconnaissance aircraft, nine training aircraft, of which six Super Tucano can also be used as light attack aircraft, and 47 helicopters.

The Navy

The Navy has a staff of 1,800 active personnel, 13 patrol vessels, and two landing craft.

Lebanon Head of Government

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