Mexico Government and Politics
Following the Constitution of 1917, Mexico is a democratic federal state according to AllCityCodes.com. In practice, however, throughout the 20th century, the country served as a relatively authoritarian one-party state. From 1917, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) dominated politics and bureaucracy and had a monopoly on both the presidential and governor positions in the states. Only at the 2000 presidential election was PRI’s monopoly broken.
The president is elected in the general election for six years. He has traditionally had very wide powers, but these were cut back in 1995, at the same time as the legislative assembly, the courts and the state and local authorities strengthened his position. Under the Constitution, the president cannot be re-elected. The provision reflects the experiences of the dictatorship (1876-1911) and the bloody civil war that ended it. The Legislative Assembly, the National Congress, consists of two houses, a federal Chamber of Deputies, consisting of 500 members, elected directly (300) and through proportional elections (200), and a Senate with 128 members (96 elected directly and 32 elected on the basis of the strength of the parties). Congress is elected for three years, the Senate for six years. The congress meets only in the fall; otherwise, the interests are safeguarded by a permanent committee of 29 members.
Mexico is divided into 31 states as well as federal territory. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of MX and its meanings of Mexico. The states have their own constitutions, but are largely organized as unions, however, so that the state assemblies have only one chamber. State independence has been limited, but has been increasing in recent years. Each state is led by a popularly elected and politically dominant governor. At the local level, there are almost two and a half thousand municipalities, with municipal councils elected.
The justice system is based mainly on French and North American examples. The judiciary is primarily of a federal nature, but there are also separate state courts, primarily for minor civil cases. The federal Supreme Court is divided into five departments. At the intermediate level, there are six appeals courts and lower district courts. In each state, the judiciary is headed by a state supreme court. The Constitution has a special provision that guarantees a private citizen the right to immediate judicial review (amparo) if he or she feels violated their constitutional rights.
Mexico has a first-time service of 12 months, partly by voluntary recruitment and partly by selective selection. The combined force numbers for Mexico’s armed forces are 277,150 active personnel, with a reserve of 81,500 personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, there are 62,900 semi-military, of which 45,500 are federal police forces and a militia of 17,400 personnel.
The army has a workforce of 208 350 active personnel. Material comprising 255 reconnaissance vehicles, 390 armored vehicles, 309 armored personnel carriers and eight armored fighters. In addition, the army has light artillery and air defense artillery.
The Air Force has a workforce of 8500 active personnel. Materials include eight reconnaissance aircraft, eight ELINT aircraft, one AEW & C aircraft, 112 transport aircraft, 144 training aircraft (of which 55 can also be used as light attack aircraft), 182 helicopters, and three medium-heavy and five light drones.
The Navy has a workforce of 60,300 active personnel, including 21,500 Marines. The fleet comprises 127 patrol vessels, four landing craft, and 25 utility and auxiliary vessels. The Navy’s aircraft has 89 aircraft and 74 helicopters.
Mexico participated in 2018 with a smaller number of personnel in UN operations in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) and in Mali (MINUSMA), and with observers in the UN operation in Western Sahara (MINURSO).