Nepal Government and Politics

State and politics

Nepal Country Flag

Reference: Nepal Flag Meaning

According to, Nepal is a secular democratic state that is described as multi-ethnic, multilingual and indivisible. Freedom of the press and religion is guaranteed. In May 2008, a provisional parliament decided to abolish the monarchy and establish a republic. The previous constitution of 1990 reintroduced multi-party systems and abolished the feudal system that prevailed since 1962. The Provisional Parliament consists of a chamber of 425 members, of which 205 are elected by direct elections in one-man constituencies and 204 are elected according to a proportional system. The government appoints the last 16 members.

In practice, in 2002-06, royal monarchy prevailed. King Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deb dismissed the government in 2002 and dissolved parliament and ruled the country through a royal, non-elected minister. The royal palace was preceded by twelve years of fragile democracy, characterized by party fragmentation, weak governments and growing corruption. The governments’ inability to develop the country and reduce poverty had also fueled a popular dissatisfaction exploited by the Maoist Communist Party for an armed revolt that broke out in 1996. Until a peace treaty in 2006, the conflict required at least 12,500 casualties, and both the state and the guerrillas were accused of violations of human rights.

Through the peace agreement, the Maoist guerrillas switched to party activities and were incorporated into the democratic system. The Provisional Constitution guarantees the Maoists considerable political influence. After the general elections in 2008, a provisional parliament was formed, whose main task is to formulate a new, permanent constitution.


The legal system consists of legislation, precedent and Hindu customary law. In business law, English law has exerted a strong influence, not least through India. At the top of the judicial organization is a supreme court, whose decisions constitute binding precedents. The death penalty was abolished in 1997; the last execution took place in 1979. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of NP and its meanings of Nepal.

Human Rights

Nepal’s transition from monarchy to democratic republic in 2008 marked the end of a decade of violent uprisings and political turbulence. The country’s political system has been based on an interim constitution since 2007. The fact that there is no permanent constitution has contributed so far that no one has taken responsibility for the violations committed during the ten-year civil war when about 13,000 people died. The state has not provided any compensation or redress to the many people who became victims of sexual violence or torture.

Sexual violence, violence against women and human trafficking are extensive. Particularly affected are the large group of women and children who are regarded as stateless by gender discrimination citizenship law and are outside the social protection network. The laws prevent women from passing on their nationality to their children, which to a large extent affects especially single women and their children. A large number of deaths related to marriages are also reported by several non-governmental organizations. Women and young girls are murdered because they do not carry a sufficiently large dowry in marriage.

Freedom of speech and press is strained and self-censorship among journalists is common. The country’s news magazines are understaffed and lack sustainable financing. Authorities also harass domestic news agencies. For access to accurate news and international surveillance, the Nepalese mainly turn to foreign press. A clearing of the country’s freedom of expression and press is noted in Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index, where Nepal climbed fifteen places up between 2014 and 2015 and thus gained 105 out of 180 ranked countries.

Heads of State

The Shah dynasty kings

1742-75 Prithvi Narayan Shah
1775 – ca 1777 Rana Pratap Singh Shah
about 1777-1800 Rana Bahadur Shah
1800-04 Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah
1804-05 Rana Bahadur Shah
1805-16 Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah
1816-47 Rajendra Bikram Shah
1847-81 Surendra Bikram Shah
1881-1911 Prithvi Bir Bikram Shah
1911-55 Tribhuvan Bir Bikram Shah
1955-72 Mahendra Bir Bikram Shah
1972-2001 Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Deb
2001-07 Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Deb


2008-15 Ram Baran Yadav
2015- Bidhya Devi Bhandari

Nepal Head of Government

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