Netherlands Government and Politics
According to AllCityCodes.com, the Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy. It also includes the country’s only remaining overseas territories, Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten. The Constitution in force in the European Netherlands was introduced in 1814, but has since been revised several times.
Dutch governance is democratic. The political authority springs from a national assembly, the State General. The government, headed by a prime minister, is based on and is accountable to the National Assembly. It consists of two chambers. The First Chamber (Eerste Kamer) has 75 representatives, who are elected by the provincial councils for four years. Annetkammeret (Second Chamber)has 150 representatives. They are elected in direct relationship choices for four years. The whole country is one constituency. The second chamber is the most important chamber. Bills must be passed in or out of this chamber; the first chamber can only accept or reject the decision of the second chamber. Both chambers can assert parliamentary responsibilities towards the government; the government can dissolve both chambers.
A special body in the Netherlands is the Council of State. It is headed by the monarch, who is formally also the one who appoints the council members. The Council has (limited) advisory duties in legislative matters and is the highest appellate body in administrative disputes. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of NL and its meanings of Netherlands.
Traditionally, the party system has reflected religious and social divides. There were separate religious parties for Protestants (Calvinists) and Catholics. The secular side was split socially, so that the liberals appealed to the middle class and the working party to the working class. The religious parties merged into one Christian Democratic Party, the CDA, in 1980. Other important parties are the Labor Party PvdA, the Liberal Conservative Party VVD and the centrist Democrat 66 (D66). Mark Rutte (VVD) became prime minister in 2010, and has since 2012 led a coalition consisting of the VVD and the PvdA.
The Netherlands is a unitary state, made up of twelve provinces. In each province there is a provincial council, elected for four years by direct proportional elections, an executive committee of six members, elected by and among the council members, and a government-appointed commissioner. The Commissioner chairs the Council and Executive Committee. Under the regions there are municipalities with elected municipal councils and a government-appointed mayor. Mergers of municipalities mean that the number of municipalities has decreased. In 2000 there were 537 municipalities, in 2016 it was 390.
Most current law books are strongly influenced by French law. The court system is common to civil and criminal cases. The participation of laymen (jury) in ordinary cases is unknown. The judges are appointed by the government, and Supreme Court judges are elected on a proposal from Parliament’s second chamber. They sit to the age limit and can only be dismissed after judgment.
The Supreme Court (Hoge Raad), which has its seat in The Hague, consists of 15 judges. In addition to being the supreme court of appeal, the Supreme Court has exercised judicial authority in the service of members of parliament and government as well as certain other senior civil servants. Incidentally, there are appeals courts, district courts and district courts.
In the Netherlands, the courts cannot test whether laws contravene the Constitution, but the legality of ordinary administrative decisions is subject to judicial review, partly in the ordinary courts and partly in various administrative special courts. It has its own military jurisdiction for members of the armed forces, with a special military supreme court in The Hague.
List of heads of state in the Netherlands
List of heads of state in the Netherlands is a list of Dutch regents from 1430 to the present.
|1430-1467||Philip 3 the good-natured|
|1467-1477||Karl the bold|
|1477-1482||Mary the rich|
|1482-1506||Filip 4 the beautiful|
|1506-1455||Karl 2 (from 1519 Emperor Karl 5)|
|1555 – about 1575||Filip 3 (Filip 2 of Spain)|
|1572-1584||William 1 the silent (of Orange)|
|1584-1620||William Ludvig of Nassau|
|1620-1632||Ernst Casimir of Nassau|
|1632-1640||Henry 1 Casimir of Nassau|
|1640-1664||William Frederick of Nassau|
|1664-1696||Henry 2 Casimir of Nassau|
|1696-1711||Johan Vilhelm Friso of Orange – Nassau|
|1711-1751||William 4 of Orange – Nassau|
|1585-1625||Maurits of Nassau|
|1625-1647||Fredrik Henrik of Orange|
|1647-1650||William 2 of Orange|
|1650-1672||Period without a governor|
|1672-1702||William 3 of Orange|
|1702-1747||Period without a governor|
|1747-1751||William 4 of Orange – Nassau|
|1751-1795||William 5 of Orange – Nassau|
Under French rule
|1795-1806||The Batavian Republic (Five-Man Government)|
|1806-1810||Kingdom of the Netherlands (Louis Napoleon)|
|1810-1814||under French administration|
Regents (House of Orange-Nassau)
|1948-1980||Juliana Louise Wilhelmina|
|1980-2013||Beatrix Wilhelmina Armgard|
List of prime ministers in the Netherlands
|1918-1925||Charles Ruys de Beerenbrouck|
|1926-1929||Dirk Jan de Geer|
|1929-1933||Charles Ruys de Beerenbrouck|
|1939-1940||Dirk Jan de Geer|
|1940-1945||Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy|
|1959-1963||Jan de Quay|
|1965-1966||Joseph M. Cals|
|1967-1971||Petrus de Jong|
|1973-1977||Joop the Uyl|
|1977-1982||Andries van Eight|
|2002-2010||Jan Peter Balkenende|