Macedonia Government and Politics

Following the Constitution of 1991, the Republic of Northern Macedonia is a unified state parliamentary democracy according to

Macedonia Country Flag

Reference: Macedonia Flag Meaning

President, Prime Minister and Government

The country’s head of state is a president, elected in the general election for five years. The President has the most ceremonial functions. He or she represents the country, is a military commander, appoints the prime minister, proposes members of the Judicial Council and heads the country’s Security Council (as well as appoints three of its members).

National Assembly

The prime minister and the government have their basis in the legislative assembly, the National Assembly Sobranie. Sobranie is elected in the general election for four years and can have between 120 and 140 members. Following the 2011 election, there are 123 members, three of whom are elected from the Macedonian diaspora.

120 members of the National Assembly are elected in proportional elections on party lists. There are six constituencies that elect 20 members of the National Assembly. D’Hondt’s method is used and there is no barrier.

Yugoslavia, in practice Serbia, in 1992 accepted Northern Macedonia’s resignation from this federation.

Administratively, the country is divided into 84 municipalities (opštini).

Political parties

Northern Macedonian politics is characterized by rivalry between two political blocs. One is led by the conservative VMRO-DPMNE, the other by the Social Democratic SDSM. Both blocks include parties representing Albanian-language voters. This is important as there are ethnic tensions between Macedonians and Albanians in the Republic.


The judiciary must be independent. It is headed by the Supreme Court. Judges are appointed by a Judicial Council, appointed by the National Assembly.

Presidents of Northern Macedonia

Presidents of Northern Macedonia since independence in 1991.

Year President
1991-1999 Kiro Gligorov
1999-2004 Boris Trajkovskij
2004-2009 Branko Crvenkovskij
2009- Gjorge Ivanov

Prime Ministers of Northern Macedonia

Prime Ministers of Macedonia since independence in 1991.

Period Prime minister
1991-1992 Nikola Kljusev
1992-1998 Branko Crvenkovskij
1998-2002 Ljubco Georgievskij
2002-2004 Branko Crvenkovskij
2004 Hari Kostov
2004-2006 Vlado Buckovskij
2006-2017 Nikola Gruevski
2017- Zoran Zaev

Northern Macedonia Head of Government

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