Peru Government and Politics

Following the 1993 constitution, Peru is a unified state and presidential democratic republic. According to, the president is elected in the general election (with a vote) for five years and can be re-elected once. The President has wide powers; he appoints the government, ambassadors and senior officers and can declare a state of emergency for up to 60 days. Legislative authority has been added to Congress, which has 120 members and is elected in general elections for five years; the whole country is one constituency. A 2003 decision to create a two-chamber parliament (150 seats plus a 50-seat senate) has not come into force as of 2006.

Peru Country Flag

Reference: Peru Flag Meaning

Since independence in the 1820s, Peru’s government has constantly switched between civil and military rule. The policy is characterized by many parties and factions within the parties. The policy has also been characterized by the fight against guerrilla groups such as Sendero Luminoso and Tupac Amaru (MRTA).

Administrative division

Peru is divided into 24 ministries and a special constitutional area; further in 278 regional districts. Local governing bodies have modest power. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of PE and its meanings of Peru.


The judiciary includes Supreme Court with President and 17 members, convicts and first instance courts. Supreme Court judges are appointed by a Judicial National Council consisting of nine independently elected members. A seven-member constitutional court, elected by Congress for five years, can interpret the Constitution and declare laws and other government decisions unconstitutional.

Peru’s defense

Peru has a military service after being selected for 12 months. Peru participates in UN peacekeeping operations. The total force numbers for Peru’s armed forces are 81,000 active personnel, with a reserve of 188,000 personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, there are 77,000 semi-military national police forces.


The army has a workforce of 47,500 active personnel. Material comprising 165 tanks of a T-55, 96 facilitate tanks category AMX-13, 95 reconnaissance vehicles, 295 armored personnel carriers, 22 armored fighters and 47 self-propelled artillery, of which 35 even slightly anti-aircraft artillery. In addition, the Army has 16 light transport aircraft, four training aircraft, 48 helicopters, heavy artillery, short-range air defense missiles and air defense artillery.

Air Force

The Air Force has a workforce of 9500 active personnel. Material comprising 20 fighters of a MiG-29, 12 fighter central Mirage 2000, 36 attack aircraft (18 A-37B Dragonfly and 18 Su-25), six reconnaissance, 37 transport, 68 trainers (of which 10, which also can be used as attack aircraft), and 70 helicopters, of which 18 combat helicopters (16 Mi-25 and two Mi-35).

The Navy

The Navy has a workforce of 24,000 active personnel, including 4,000 Marines and 1,000 Coast Guard personnel. The fleet comprises six tactical submarines, seven frigates, one dock landing vessel, 12 patrol vessels, nine landings, and 25 logistics and auxiliary vessels. In addition, the Navy has 20 aircraft and 28 helicopters.

The Coast Guard has 38 patrol vessels, one aid vessel, and three aircraft.

International operations

In 2018, Peru participated in the UN operation in the Central African Republic (MINUSCA) with 209 personnel and four observers. In addition, Peru participated with observers and a small number of personnel in UN operations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (MONUSCO), in Sudan (UNAMID and UNISFA), and in South Sudan (UNMISS).

Peru Head of Government

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