Paleolithic. – The oldest traces of man in European Russia were discovered by Boncz-Osmołowski in the cave of Kiik-Koba (Crimea), which also provided 2 skeletons of the Neanderthal type. The finds, considered by the discoverer as belonging to the Acheuléan industry, probably belong only to the lower Moustérian industry. Other Moustérian stations are known in the Wolf cave in Simferopol ′ (Crimea), then at the mouth of the Derkul in the Donec, in Ilskaja (Kuban ′) and in Alagöz (Armenia). Deposits of the lower Aurignacian industry were discovered in the Crimea. The only station of the upper Aurignacian industry of the French type is that of Borševo I (Ukraine). In western Ukraine (especially in Podolia) and on the Don (Kostenki, Gagarino, etc.) we encounter numerous deposits of the upper Aurignacian industry of a Middle-European character. On the other hand, certain stations of the upper Aurignacian industry in central and northern Ukraine (Mezen ′) and others have a purely local character, which manifests itself mainly in bone tools and in a different plastic and decorative art (meanders). It is not excluded that these stations correspond chronologically only to the Solutréan period and perhaps also to the Magdalenian period, from which other stations with upper Aurignacian industry certainly also come (Borševo II, Honcy and others). which manifests itself mainly in bone instruments and in a different plastic and decorative art (meanders). It is not excluded that these stations correspond chronologically only to the Solutréan period and perhaps also to the Magdalenian period, from which other stations with upper Aurignacian industry certainly also come (Borševo II, Honcy and others). which manifests itself mainly in bone instruments and in a different plastic and decorative art (meanders). It is not excluded that these stations correspond chronologically only to the Solutréan period and perhaps also to the Magdalenian period, from which other stations with upper Aurignacian industry certainly also come (Borševo II, Honcy and others).
Mesolithic. – On the territories of the steppes of southern Russia the Late Nenoisian culture appears at the beginning of the Mesolithic, with a local character (pedunculated arrowheads, etc.). To a more recent phase of the Mesolithic we must certainly ascribe the stations of the Campignan culture, which can be seen on soils rich in very good flint: in western Ukraine, in northern Russia (heights of Valdai) and in the Pentrale (banks of the upper Volga and of the ‘Oka).
Neolithic and Eneolithic. – The black earth areas (è ernozem) in Ukraine are occupied by the agricultural culture of Tripolie (Tripol′e) with ceramics first with engraved decorations, then painted. The Kurgan culture developed in the steppes of the Black Sea at that time(burial mounds) with huddled skeletons dyed red, ascribed to the Kimmerici. The pottery of the earliest mounds, with pit tombs, clearly shows associations with comb-decorated pottery; instead that of the more recent tumuli, with chamber tombs, indicates a certain influence of the Tripolian pottery, with spiral ornaments. A different local character has the group of Kurgan from the province of Kuban ′, rich in copper objects and in silver and gold vases, which shows a strong influence or re-entry.
The sylvan areas of central and northern Russia are occupied during the Neolithic by a nomadic comb-pottery culture, most densely concentrated in the Upper Volga. In the Eneolithic period, the Fatjanovo culture appears here, visibly linked with the West (pottery and stone warrior hammers).
Bronze Age. – The steppes on the Black Sea up to the Ural and further on in Siberia are always occupied by the Kurgan culture with red-dyed skeletons, called in the Lower Volga culture of Chwalynsk (Chvalynsk) and around Minusinsk (Siberia) culture of Andronova. The tombs then mostly have the shape of wooden boxes and the pottery is decorated with geometric motifs (meanders, swastikas, etc.). From Ukraine and southern Russia we know a great deal of bronze closets. Alongside objects of a distinctly local character, there are shapes that demonstrate strong influences of the Hungarian bronze culture; weaker appear those of Caucasian and micro-Asian cultures. Under a clear influence of the Ukrainian bronze culture was the bronze industry of eastern Russia, which also maintained lively relations with eastern Sweden (import of Malar-type axes).
Iron Age. – In the steppes of the Black Sea, in the areas between the frontiers of Poland up to the Don, they appear in the 10th century. VII a. C. the Iranian Scythians, with their own original culture, which demonstrates strong influences of the Greek colonies of the Black Sea. Under a clear influence of the Scythian culture, from which it took the animal ornamentation, the culture of Anan′ino, which presents a sure continuation of the bronze civilization of eastern Russia. The culture of Anan′ino is characterized by a strong use of iron, from tombs to inhumation, without mounds, and Djakovo-type castles. In the Kuban ′ a separate non-Aryan culture developed at that time, subjected to strong influences from Anterior Asia. In the century IV Celts appear in western Ukraine, reaching as far as the lower Volga. About 250 BC C. the invasion of the Iranian Sarmatians falls on southern Russia, who subjugate the Scythians and dominate here until about 200 years AD. C. In their tombs (Kurgan and individual burials) much poorer than those of the Scythians, we encounter numerous objects of Roman and Greek import, as well as leftovers, mirrors, etc., which testify to commercial relations with China. In western Ukraine, starting from the century. III a. C., the use of the Kurgan ceases, and in their place the tombs with slabs to the rite of cremation appear, with fibulae of the La Tène type, and ceramics with signs of Hellenic influences. Towards the middle of the century III d. C. the Germanic Goths come to Ukraine, to whom the slab tombs with burial and cremation tombs are ascribed. Their dominion puts an end to invasion of the Huns in 375. In eastern Russia, in lower Kama, in the first centuries AD. C. develops the culture of Pianobor, probably Finno-Ugric, forming a further continuation of the culture of Anan′ino.