Slovakia Government and Politics

Following the 1992 Constitution, most recently amended in 2001, Slovakia is a unified state democratic republic. The head of state, the president, is elected from 2001 by direct election for five years with the possibility of one re-election; previously he was elected by the National Assembly – the Slovak National Council. Unlike many other countries, it is not enough to get the majority of votes cast in the first place to avoid a second ballot. In order to be elected in the first round of elections, the candidate must have received the votes of more than half of the eligible voters.

The President is responsible to the National Council. Although the president plays a certain political role, the executive rests primarily with the prime minister and the government.

The Legislative Assembly, the National Council, has 150 members, elected for four years in general elections in proportional elections. The party system is relatively fragmented, and coalition governments have been the usual one.

The main political parties are smerig-SD, SDKÚ, KDH, SaS, OL’aNO and Most-Híd.

Slovakia Country Flag


Administratively, Slovakia is divided into eight regions (kraje) and further into 79 districts (okresy), all led by elected councils.


The judiciary includes a supreme court, county courts and district courts. It is also a constitutional court of its own. Judges are elected by the National Council. The legislation is characterized by Austro-Hungarian examples.

Presidents of Slovakia

Presidents of Slovakia since 1993.

Period President
1993 Vladimir Mečiar *)
1993-1998 Michal Kováč
1998 Vladimír Mečiar *)
1998-1999 Mikuláš Dzurinda *)
1999-2004 Rudolf Schuster
2004-2014 Ivan Gašparović
2014- Andrei Kiska

*) Functioning

History and Politics

Prehistory and early history

Already 250,000 years ago, in the Stone Age, people lived in what is now Slovakia. In the 6th millennium BC Then the hunters and gatherers became sedentary farmers. In the 4th century BC Celts settled here. From the year 8 AD, Quaden came to the region, they were a Germanic tribe. They built a small empire. In the 2nd century they had to defend themselves against the Romans. In the 4th and 5th centuries Huns ruled here, and Lombards also came in the 6th century.

Immigration of the Slavs and foundation of the Moravian Empire

In the 6th century Slavs immigrated to what is now Slovakia. They came from the east and settled here. A Slavic merchant named Samo established an empire in the 7th century that also included the south-west of today’s Slovakia. The Avars ruled in the 8th century.

In the 9th century, the Moravians founded an empire that also included western Slovakia. The city of Nitra became one of its centers. It reached its greatest extent under Prince Svatopluk (reign 871-894). Moravia became a great power. But the decline began under Svatopluk’s sons. Eventually the Hungarians conquered the area.

Hungarian rule

The Magyars (Hungarians) gradually conquered the territory of Slovakia and incorporated it into their emerging Kingdom of Hungary. In 1241 Mongols invaded and devastated the country. Germans were brought into the country for resettlement (Carpathian Germans). In the 13th and 14th centuries, mining flourished and brought wealth to the region.

In 1526 Hungary became part of the Habsburg monarchy. After the Ottomans conquered large parts of Hungary, Bratislava became the capital of Hungary. The Slovak national movement began at the end of the 18th century. One of their leaders was Ľudovít Štúr.

Part of Czechoslovakia (1918-1939) and First Republic (1939-1945)

In 1918 the national movement finally led to success. The Czech Republic and Slovakia decided to found a common state. On October 28, the independent state of Czechoslovakia was founded. As one of their founding fathers, Milan Rastislav Štefánik is honored by the Slovaks. After more than 1000 years, Slovakia was no longer part of Hungary.

However, the capital was now Prague and the goal of Czechoslovakia was a unified people, both nationally and linguistically. That created tension. In Slovakia, the Ludak party demanded autonomy for Slovakia. In 1939 they also proclaimed an independent Slovak state. This was a dictatorship under the Ludaks. The country was allied with the German Reich during World War II.

In April 1945 Slovakia was occupied by the Soviet Red Army. After the Second World War it became part of the newly founded Czechoslovakia.

Slovakia Head of Government

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