Sri Lanka Government and Politics
According to AllCityCodes.com, Sri Lanka is a presidential, democratic and unified state republic. The head of state, the president, is elected in the general election for six years and can be re-elected. The president’s power has been strengthened on several occasions. Thus, he/she can print a new presidential election before a term is out, appoint and dismiss the prime minister and other ministers, even take over the ministerial post he/she may wish, dissolve parliament and submit cases that parliament has rejected for referendum.
Legislative authority has been added to parliament. It has 225 members, who are elected for six years in general elections according to a modified ratio scheme (with preference voting).
Administratively, Sri Lanka is divided into nine provinces. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of SL and its meanings of Sri Lanka. These are headed by a provincial council and are again divided into 25 administrative districts
The judiciary includes the Supreme Court, the Court of Appeal, a Superior Court, district courts, magistrates’ courts and primary courts. The last four courts are first instance courts, with the court of appeals as the first court of appeal.
The legislation is a mixture of English, Dutch, Sinhalese and traditional legislation.
India signed the treaty as a guarantor and pledged to send troops to guarantee compliance with the agreement. First, however, it had to be ratified by the parliaments of India and Sri Lanka and approved by the main guerrilla group: “The Tigers of Liberation of Tamil EELAM” (LTTE) – also known as the “Tamil Tigers”.
The 1987 agreement failed to bring peace to the country and, rather than guaranteeing peace, the presence of Indian forces became a source of irritation and new clashes. At the same time, the Tamil Tigers rejected the agreement, causing violence to increase further.
In the 1988 election, the ruling party retained power with 50.4% of the vote, but the 82-year-old Jayeward left the presidential post to Ranasinghe Premadasa, who had been prime minister until then.
The election campaign was characterized by the political violence in the country, which was the main reason why only 53% of the eligible voters voted. The election was boycotted by both the Tamil Tigers and the Sinhalese People’s Liberation Front, who violently opposes any form of concession to the ethnic minority.
At the same time, opposition to the government increased. In particular, it was borne out by a strong student movement, which was only stifled in early 1989 after an extreme repression.
In early 1990, India withdrew the last of the 60,000 soldiers from Sri Lanka who had been posted since 1987. Over 1,000 soldiers had died on the island. Amnesty International declared that through 1990 the government killed thousands of civilians.
In May 1991, the Tamil Tigers were accused of killing Indian President Rajiv Ghandi in a suicide attack. The Indian president had become the enemy of the tigers after the Indian peacekeepers attacked the Tigers on the island. Still, they refused to be linked to the attack. The partisan movement is believed to be the most efficient and best equipped in the world. It is funded by Tamils abroad who contribute millions of dollars annually. Its 37-year-old leader, Vilupillai Prabhakaran is headquartered in the jungle in the north of the country.
The UNP government won the May 17 election, conducted in fairly calm conditions, and gained a majority in 6 of the country’s 7 provinces. In August, tiger leader Velupillai accused his second-in-command of negotiating with the government, removing him from the post. The outlook for peace seemed very distant. As a result of the war, the economy of the northern and eastern parts of the country has almost collapsed and thousands have had to emigrate.
At the November 1994 presidential election, the People’s Alliance candidate, Chandrika Kumaratunga, won the election by 63% of the vote. She had been appointed prime minister after the August parliamentary elections and now became the country’s first female president.
The government and the Tigers agreed to start negotiations in January 1995, but the ceasefire was broken by the Tamils, and in April the LTTE launched a new series of attacks on the government forces.
In August, Kumaratunga presented a plan to reform the state for parliament. The proposal was supported by the Tamils. the transformation of Sri Lanka into a federation of 8 regions. The central government should maintain control over defense, foreign policy and international economic relations. In order to be adopted, the proposal had to be supported by two-thirds of the Members of Parliament and subsequently approved by a referendum. But negotiations between the political parties slowed the process, and the increasingly fierce military fighting delayed it further.
From October 1995, the city of Jaffna became the center of military fighting in northern Sri Lanka, and on December 5, the government forces captured the city. Only 400 of the 140,000 residents of the city remained. It was not until mid-1996 that half the population of the Jaffna Peninsula had returned to their homes.