Sudan Government and Politics
According to AllCityCodes.com, Sudan is, after the constitution of 1998, an Islamic unity republic. In 2005, a new provisional constitution came into force, while a separate constitution was introduced for South Sudan following the signing of the peace agreement. Subsequently, South Sudan’s leader became vice president of Sudan, and a national unity government and a temporary national assembly was established with a percentage distribution of the 450 mandates. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of SU and its meanings of Sudan. According to the peace agreement, a 2011 referendum was held in South Sudan, which thereby chose to establish itself as an independent state.
Until 1983, the country had a divided civil and Islamic legal system. Then a time a pure Islamic system (sharia – right) introduced. For a time the legal conditions were unclear. Following the 2005 peace agreement, the Sharia system is maintained in the north, but no longer in force in the south. A Constitutional Court and Supreme Court have its seat in Khartoum. In May 2007, Sudan and Chad signed a peace agreement in Saudi Arabia to suspend talks between the two countries’ 1,000-km border, which forms the western part of Darfur. The conflict had formally started when, in December 2005, Chad declared itself in a state of war with Sudan because the Darfur conflict was spreading across its border.
In July 2007, the UN Security Council passed a resolution authorizing a force of 26,000 UN and African Union peacekeeping forces to enter Darfur. The Sudanese government declared that it intended to cooperate with the peace mission and, moreover, continued to seek a negotiated solution as a political solution to the conflict.
In July 2008, Chief Prosecutor accused the International Criminal Court, Luis Moreno Ocampo, al-Bashir for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes in Darfur. In March 2009, the court issued an arrest warrant against al-Bashir for war crimes and crimes against humanity, but declared that there was insufficient evidence to indict him for genocide. Al-Bashir is the first sitting head of state to have been charged by the ICC. However, the court’s move was contentious. The African Union, the League of Arab States, the Alliance-Free Countries as well as Russia and China all objected to the arrest warrant. One expert urged the court to revoke the arrest warrant. Sudan responded immediately by deporting a number of Western aid organizations. The president has since visited a large number of African and Arab countries – without being arrested.
The court’s arrest warrant was particularly interesting because Sudan has not ratified the Rome agreement, which is the basis of the ICC. The arrest warrant has set a precedent for possible arrest warrants against state leaders from e.g. The United States, Israel, or the United Kingdom, who may also be tried for war crimes and crimes against humanity.
Al-Bashir was a candidate in the April 2010 presidential election, the first election in several decades in which more candidates could stand. He won the election with 68% of the vote.
Bashir visited Kenya in August 2010 ifbm. the ceremony for the signing of the country’s new constitution. The visit was controversial when the ICC demanded him be arrested, but the Kenyan authorities who did not recognize the ICC arrest warrant failed to intervene. However, in November 2011, Kenya’s supreme court issued an order requiring the country’s security minister to arrest Bashir “if he ever sets foot on Kenyan soil again”.
The South Sudan referendum in January 2011 on independence provided 98.3% support for independence. On July 9, South Sudan became an independent state.