Taiwan Government and Politics

China’s constitution of 1947, after Chiang Kai-shek’s defeat of the Communists, was limited to Taiwan from 1949, most recently changed in 2005. Taiwan is a unified state republic with a fairly democratic system of government. The chief executive is added to the head of state, the president. He is elected in the general election for a term of four years and may be re-elected once. The president has considerable powers, but they have been somewhat reduced by the recent constitutional amendments.

Taiwan Country Flag

Reference: Taiwan Flag Meaning

Following the 1947 Constitution, Taiwan’s rule of law is based on the principle of five governing institutions (yuan). According to AllCityCodes.com, the system was somewhat simplified in 2005, among other things. the former National Council of 300 members was dissolved. The legislative yuan, which is the only chamber of the National Assembly from 2005, is elected in the general election for three (previously four) years. It has 113 seats (previously 225) from 2007. The executive yuan, the government, is responsible to the National Assembly; the prime minister is appointed by the president.

Administrative division

Formally, Taiwan is still a province (in a unified China). Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of TW and its meanings of Taiwan. Taiwan Province is locally divided into 16 counties (hsien). In addition, there are five urban municipalities and two metropolitan areas of special status (Taipei and Kaohsiung). There are elected bodies at the local level.


The judiciary is headed by the judicial yuan’s judges, nominated and nominated for nine years by the president, with the consent of the National Assembly. Furthermore, there is a Supreme Court which is the third and final court in both civil and criminal cases.

Taiwan’s defense

Taiwan has 12 months of conscription. The total force figures for Taiwan’s armed forces are 163,000 active personnel, with a reserve of 1,657,000 personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, 11 450 semi-military members are assigned to the coast guard.


The force numbers for the army are about 88,000, including military police. Heavy materials include 565 tanks (365 M48, and 200 M60), 625 lightweight M41 and Type 64 tanks, 225 storm armor (based on M113) and 1220 armored personnel vehicles. In addition, the Army has 273 helicopters, of which 96 combat helicopters (67 Cobra and 29 Apache), and light drones.

Air Force

The Air Force has a workforce of 35,000 active personnel. Materials include 285 fighter aircraft (of which 87 F-5 Tiger II, 143 F-16, and 55 Mirage 2000), 127 fighter aircraft (F-CK-1 Ching Kuo, developed in Taiwan), 12 anti-submarine aircraft, one EK aircraft, six AEW & C planes of a Hawkeye seven reconnaissance, 33 transport, 97 trainers, and 19 helicopters.

The Navy

The Navy has a workforce of 40,000 active personnel, including 10,000 Marines. The fleet includes four tactical submarines, four cruisers (of the American Kidd class), 22 frigates, one dock landing vessel (of the American Anchorage class), one command ship, 44 patrol vessels, nine minesweepers, 55 landing craft, and 12 logistics and auxiliary vessels. In addition, the Navy has 30 helicopters and 29 medium-heavy drones.


The Coast Guard has a personnel force of 11 450 personnel and 161 patrol vessels.

Taiwan Head of Government

The omnipresence of the relationship with the People’s Republic of China in Taiwanese politics

The relationship between Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China (PRC), both from a political, economic, diplomatic and military point of view, is the center around which all Taiwanese politics gravitate. On the issue it is organized and positioned according to the same internal party offer: on the one hand the so-called pan-blue coalition, led by the Guomindang (GMD) and advocate of a line of dialogue and collaboration with Beijing, and which has never abandoned the idea of ​​a reunification with the continent. On the other, the pan-green coalition, dominated by the Progressive Democratic Party (DPP) and which has always promoted the Taiwanese identity, different from that of mainland China. The various formulas used over the years to refer to relations between the two countries have also reflected this fluctuation of positions;political leaderships look at the use of one denomination rather than another, returning the complexity and centrality of the dispute. From special state-to-state relations of former President Lee Tung-hui (1988-2000, of the GMD), we moved on to the theses of President Chen Shuibian (2000-08, of the DPP), who preferred to emphasize the existence on the sides of the Strait of two separate states. This led to the current Taiwanese head of state, Ma Ying-jeou (GMD), who reused the formula of the exceptional nature of the relationship, but between two distinct areas within a single state. Ma Ying-jeou, while in favor of reunification, referred to Chiang Ching-kuo’s innovative government by formulating the policy of ‘three no’s’ (‘no reconciliation, no independence, no use of force’) to indicate the meaning of his policy. conditioning of rapprochement with the PRC. The formula which, on the other hand, is confirmed to be the most shared, as well as most widely used, especially in the diplomatic world, Crossstrait relations). How much form is mixed with political substance can also be seen from the administrative level. The governments of the two countries do not treat each other’s relations as pertaining to foreign departments, but relate through formally private bodies, albeit under their control: as regards the PRC, through the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, for Taipei instead with the Straits Exchange Foundation.

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