Taiwan Government and Politics
China’s constitution of 1947, after Chiang Kai-shek’s defeat of the Communists, was limited to Taiwan from 1949, most recently changed in 2005. Taiwan is a unified state republic with a fairly democratic system of government. The chief executive is added to the head of state, the president. He is elected in the general election for a term of four years and may be re-elected once. The president has considerable powers, but they have been somewhat reduced by the recent constitutional amendments.
Following the 1947 Constitution, Taiwan’s rule of law is based on the principle of five governing institutions (yuan). According to AllCityCodes.com, the system was somewhat simplified in 2005, among other things. the former National Council of 300 members was dissolved. The legislative yuan, which is the only chamber of the National Assembly from 2005, is elected in the general election for three (previously four) years. It has 113 seats (previously 225) from 2007. The executive yuan, the government, is responsible to the National Assembly; the prime minister is appointed by the president.
Formally, Taiwan is still a province (in a unified China). Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of TW and its meanings of Taiwan. Taiwan Province is locally divided into 16 counties (hsien). In addition, there are five urban municipalities and two metropolitan areas of special status (Taipei and Kaohsiung). There are elected bodies at the local level.
The judiciary is headed by the judicial yuan’s judges, nominated and nominated for nine years by the president, with the consent of the National Assembly. Furthermore, there is a Supreme Court which is the third and final court in both civil and criminal cases.
Taiwan has 12 months of conscription. The total force figures for Taiwan’s armed forces are 163,000 active personnel, with a reserve of 1,657,000 personnel (2018, IISS). In addition, 11 450 semi-military members are assigned to the coast guard.
The force numbers for the army are about 88,000, including military police. Heavy materials include 565 tanks (365 M48, and 200 M60), 625 lightweight M41 and Type 64 tanks, 225 storm armor (based on M113) and 1220 armored personnel vehicles. In addition, the Army has 273 helicopters, of which 96 combat helicopters (67 Cobra and 29 Apache), and light drones.
The Air Force has a workforce of 35,000 active personnel. Materials include 285 fighter aircraft (of which 87 F-5 Tiger II, 143 F-16, and 55 Mirage 2000), 127 fighter aircraft (F-CK-1 Ching Kuo, developed in Taiwan), 12 anti-submarine aircraft, one EK aircraft, six AEW & C planes of a Hawkeye seven reconnaissance, 33 transport, 97 trainers, and 19 helicopters.
The Navy has a workforce of 40,000 active personnel, including 10,000 Marines. The fleet includes four tactical submarines, four cruisers (of the American Kidd class), 22 frigates, one dock landing vessel (of the American Anchorage class), one command ship, 44 patrol vessels, nine minesweepers, 55 landing craft, and 12 logistics and auxiliary vessels. In addition, the Navy has 30 helicopters and 29 medium-heavy drones.
The Coast Guard has a personnel force of 11 450 personnel and 161 patrol vessels.