Tajikistan Government and Politics

State and politics

Tajikistan Country Flag

Since 1991, the political life of Tajikistan has been marked by strong political and regional contradictions. In November 1992, the Communist-dominated Supreme Soviet under Emomali Rachmonov took over the government. In November 1994 Rachmonov (who later chose to write his name Rachmon without the Russian suffix -ov) was elected president, and at the same time a new constitution was adopted. Following a referendum in June 1997, a peace agreement was concluded in the civil war, and a fragile peace process was initiated. Alongside the dominant presidential party The People’s Democratic Party in Tajikistan is also marked a Communist Party and Central Asia’s only legal Islamic party. In the November 1999 presidential election, Rachmon was re-elected after the opposition withdrew its candidates in protest of how the election was conducted. The 2006 presidential election was also boycotted by the heavier opposition parties. The elections have been criticized by the OSCE election observers.

The 1994 constitution, which was supplemented in 1999 and 2003, gives the president, who is elected for seven years, a strong position. Parliament Majlisi oli has two chambers, both appointed for five years at a time. The 63 members of the lower house are elected by direct elections, while the upper house is appointed by the regional assemblies and by the president. Tajik is the state language, but the Russian has a special position as a language for communication with other ethnic groups.

Tajikistan has a complicated relationship with neighboring Uzbekistan. President Rachmon has been acclaimed as the founder of the Tajik nation by President Rachmon, who co-founded Buchara in present-day Uzbekistan as the capital of Uzbekistan during the 800s and 900s. This has annoyed the Uzbek government, not least because Buchara and Samarkand still have a large Tajik population. Even into the 21st century, Uzbekistan has restricted communications with Tajikistan. Long sections along the border have been mined by Uzbekistan for fear that terrorist groups might seek protection on Tajik territory.

Tajikistan is part of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), including the Collective Security Agreement (May 1992) and the Customs Cooperation EurAsEc (October 2000). A Russian military base that remains since the Soviet era represents an important political link to the Russian Federation, even though the crew today is mainly recruited in Tajikistan. The country has been a member of NATO’s Partnership for Peace since 2000. Since its inception in 1996, Tajikistan is part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO).


The legal order in Tajikistan has gradually been adapted to the needs of the market economy in connection with and after the disintegration of the Soviet Union, but the foundation of the legal system is still the Soviet legal heritage. The death penalty still remains in the legislation but is de facto abolished in 2004.

Heads of State


1991-92 Rachmon Nabijev
1992- Emomali Rachmon *

* Until November 1994 Chairman of the Supreme Council.

Tajikistan Head of Government

TAJIKISTAN. – Agricultural activity has developed considerably and mechanized in the last post-war decade; the crops are very varied, especially in relation to the altitude. From subtropical products, such as cotton, sugar cane, citrus fruits, lower down, we gradually move on to vines, mulberries, vegetables and legumes, cereals (rice and wheat) and potatoes, which date back to the 2000 m; above extensive areas of pastures. The most important crop of all is that of cotton, favored by an increasingly adequate irrigation system, especially in the Vachš and Gissar valleys. The unitary fiber yields reach 28 q per hectare for the Soviet-type fiber, and 22 q per hectare for the more valuable Egyptian-type fiber. In 1956 the total harvest of the whole republic was 415. 000 t of fiber (in 1950 it was 127,000 t). The area dedicated to cotton growing is approximately 164,000 ha.

Agriculture is therefore the basis of many industries, which have been able to develop due to the significant increase given to the production of hydroelectric energy (in 1956, 296 million kWh; in 1950, 169 million kWh). The largest plants are that of Golovnaja, on the Vachš river, and that of Kairak-Kum, the largest in Central Asia, on the Syr-Darja river.

The cotton textile industry has its great combinat in Stalinabad (now called Djušambe): around 40 million meters of cotton wool are produced annually. Even the silk industry has a certain development: it finds its raw material in the Fergana and Gissar valleys where jasmine and silkworm farming are traditional activities. The Leninabad combinat is the center of silk fabric production, with an annual total of 18 million meters of silk. Other industries: wine making, the preparation of fruit preserves, vegetables, legumes and geranium oil, used in perfumery, the grinding of cereals.

The breeding is practiced above all in the mountain regions; Among the sheep breeds, the Gissar (meat animals) and the Gornodarvazskaja breed stand out, obtained with the competition of the Institute for the Breeding and Veterinary Art of the Tajikistan RSS. In all there are 2,975,000 sheep heads; 590,000 head of cattle (of which 192,000 dairy); 55,000 pigs. The subsoil is also rich in various minerals, which were not, in the past, put in value: gold, radium, arsenic, tin, copper, tungsten, fluorine, various salts, zinc and especially coal (657,000 t in 1956) and Petroleum.

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