Uzbekistan Government and Politics
Following the 1992 Constitution, amended in 2002, Uzbekistan is a secular, democratic, unified state and presidential republic. According to AllCityCodes.com, the head of state, the president, is elected to the general elections for seven years and cannot sit for more than two consecutive terms. He appoints the Prime Minister and the Government, but formally the appointments must be approved by the Supreme Assembly. The government is accountable to the president. Also see AbbreviationFinder for abbreviation of UZ and its meanings of Uzbekistan. The president is a military commander. Legislative authority has been added to a parliament with two chambers. House of Representatives (Oliy Majlis)is elected in the general election for five years and has 120 members. The Senate has 100 members, 84 elected by the county assemblies for five years and 16 elected by the president. Politics is dominated by the president and parties loyal to him, including the former Communist Party. It is the last Soviet leader, Islam Karimov, who has been president since 1990, re-elected by 2000.
The governance has been relatively authoritarian, which has contributed to some extent to stability, at least in the short term. However, it also reflects the concern of the rulers that the country should be torn apart by religious and ethnic strife. Parties on religious or ethnic grounds are prohibited.
Administratively, the rather centrally governed country is divided into 12 counties (oblasts), an autonomous republic, Karakalpakia and the metropolitan area. There are elected councils in the counties, while the executive rests with fairly independent state-appointed governors (khokims). Karakalpakia has its own governance, with a president-elect.
The Supreme Courts include a Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Economic Court. Furthermore, there are courts at county and local level. Karakalpakia has its own judicial system, with a Supreme Court as the supreme court. The prosecuting authority is headed by a general attorney. He also oversees justice. The supreme representatives of the judiciary are appointed by the president, but must be approved by the House of Representatives.
Uzbekistan has military service with the first 12 months of service. The total force figures for Uzbekistan’s armed forces are 48,000 active personnel (2018, IISS). In addition there are about 20,000 semi-military, of which up to 19,000 personnel in internal security forces and a national guard of 1,000 personnel.
The Army has a strength of 24,500 active personnel. Materials include 340 tanks (of which 170 are T-62, 100 T-64, and 70 T-72), 19 clearing vehicles, 270 storm tanks, 359 armored personnel vehicles and about 83 self-propelled artillery. In addition, the army has heavy artillery.
The Air Force has a force of 7500 active personnel. Material comprising 12 fighters of a MiG-29, 13 fighter aircraft of the type Su-27, 16 attack aircraft of the type Su-25, 26 EK-fly, 13 ELINT aircraft, seven transport aircraft, 14 trainers, and 98 helicopters, of which 29 combat helicopters of type Mi-24. In addition, the Air Force has long range air defense missiles.