Andorra Government

Andorra, officially known as the Principality of Andorra, is a small, landlocked country nestled in the eastern Pyrenees mountains between France and Spain. This unique geographical position heavily influences its culture, politics, and economy.



Andorra has a temperate climate typical of alpine regions. Winters are snowy and cold, making it a popular destination for winter sports, while summers are cool and generally pleasant.


The fauna of Andorra is typical of the Pyrenees. This includes a variety of mountain species such as the Pyrenean chamois, marmots, and the golden eagle. The country’s diverse habitats support these species, though human activity and development have impacted local wildlife populations.

Longest Rivers

  • Gran Valira River: Andorra’s largest and longest river, which flows southward into Spain.
  • Valira del Nord River: Another significant river, flowing from the north of the country.

Highest Mountains

  • Coma Pedrosa: The highest peak in Andorra, standing at 2,942 meters. It is a popular destination for hikers and climbers.
  • Pic de Médécourbe: Reaching 2,914 meters, this is another prominent peak, marking the border with Spain and France.


Prehistory to Medieval Period

Evidence of human activity in Andorra dates back to the Neolithic period. The region was later influenced by Romans and Moors. The unique political system of Andorra as a co-principality dates back to the signing of a paréage in 1278 between the Bishop of Urgell and the Count of Foix.

Modern Era

Throughout the centuries, Andorra maintained its autonomy, largely due to its isolated location. The principality declared war on Germany during World War I but took no part in the fighting. It remained neutral during World War II and continued to develop economically, particularly through tourism and banking.


Andorra’s population is approximately 77,000. The majority are Andorrans, but there is also a significant number of Spanish, Portuguese, and French nationals. The official language is Catalan, and the predominant religion is Roman Catholicism. Despite its small size, Andorra has a well-developed social structure and a high standard of living.

Administrative Divisions

Andorra is divided into seven parishes, each with its own unique character and degree of autonomy:

  1. Andorra la Vella: Population of approximately 22,886. It is the capital and a major economic centre.
  2. Canillo: Population around 4,474. Known for its ski resorts.
  3. Encamp: Population about 13,521. Another hub for winter sports.
  4. Escaldes-Engordany: Population roughly 14,395. Notable for its hot springs.
  5. La Massana: Population of 10,000. Popular for outdoor activities.
  6. Ordino: Population around 4,977. Known for its cultural heritage.
  7. Sant Julià de Lòria: Population approximately 9,706. Home to the University of Andorra.

10 Largest Cities by Population

The concept of “cities” in Andorra is more akin to towns or large villages due to its small size. Here are the major urban centers by population:

  1. Andorra la Vella: 22,886
  2. Escaldes-Engordany: 14,395
  3. Encamp: 13,521
  4. La Massana: 10,000
  5. Sant Julià de Lòria: 9,706
  6. Pas de la Casa: 2,996
  7. Ordino: 4,977
  8. Canillo: 4,474
  9. Arinsal: 1,483
  10. El Tarter: 1,105

Education Systems


Education in Andorra is mandatory until the age of 16 and is provided free of charge. The system includes three schooling systems: Andorran, French, and Spanish, reflecting the country’s unique cultural influences.

Higher Education

  • University of Andorra: The main higher education institution, offering a range of undergraduate and postgraduate courses mainly focused on nursing, computer science, and business management.



Andorra does not have its own airport. The nearest major airports are in Spain (Barcelona-El Prat Airport) and France (Toulouse-Blagnac Airport).


There are no railway systems within Andorra. The nearest train stations are located in France and Spain.


Andorra has a well-maintained road network that connects it to both France and Spain. The total road length is about 320 kilometers.

Major Ports

Being landlocked, Andorra does not have any ports. The nearest major sea ports are again in France and Spain.

Country Facts

  • Population: 77,000
  • Capital: Andorra la Vella
  • Languages: Catalan (official), French, Spanish, Portuguese
  • Major Religion: Roman Catholicism
  • Currency: Euro (EUR)
  • ISO Country Codes: AD, AND, 020
  • International Calling Code: +376
  • Top-Level Domain: .ad